lunedì 24 ottobre 2016

Marvin Gaye . (Washington, 2 aprile 1939 – Los Angeles, 1º aprile 1984)

Marvin Gaye

Marvin Gaye, all'anagrafe Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. (Washington, 2 aprile 1939 – Los Angeles, 1º aprile 1984), è stato un cantautore, produttore discografico e arrangiatore statunitense, artista di spicco della musica soul e R&B.
Ottenne fama internazionale a cavallo tra gli anni sessanta e settanta presso la celeberrima casa discografica Motown. Ancora oggi i suoi dischi sono molto richiesti sul mercato e influenzano anche le generazioni più giovani grazie al suono fresco, sensuale ma allo stesso tempo complesso e dotato di una profondità che richiede un ascolto prolungato per essere colta. A rendere l'artista ancora attuale contribuisce inoltre la forza dei suoi testi, intrisi di temi caldi inerenti alla politica, l'economia, l'ambiente, i conflitti internazionali e, ovviamente, l'amore. Per il suo impegno, le sue lotte contro il sistema e il forte richiamo alle radici della musica afro-americana, da sempre detentrice di una funzione di denuncia dei soprusi e delle ingiustizie, è considerato uno degli artisti più importanti della sua era.
Marvin Gaye iniziò la sua carriera agli inizi degli anni sessanta presso la Motown, produsse molte hit tra le quali Stubborn Kind of Fellow, How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You), I Heard It Through the Grapevine, e molti duetti con Tammi Terrell, quali Ain't No Mountain High Enough e You're All I Need to Get By, prima di raggiungere quella maturità artistica che gli permetterà di affrancarsi da produttori e discografici. Gaye è infatti noto per i suoi attriti con la Motown che tendeva a racchiudere in categorie ben distinte cantanti, autori e produttori, imbrigliando così la creatività degli artisti che potevano solo cantare e non scrivere testi per sé stessi o autoprodursi.
Gaye si impose però con forza nel 1971 con l'album What's Going On. Tale album provò che si potevano rompere gli schemi: Gaye, che all'inizio degli anni sessanta era stato autore di alcuni testi per giovani artisti della Motown, dimostrò di poter scrivere e produrre i propri testi e la propria musica senza la necessità di passare attraverso il sistema discografico. Questi risultati avrebbero poi spianato la strada ad artisti della musica afro-americana come Stevie Wonder.
Durante gli anni settanta e ottanta Gaye produsse altri album di successo, tra i quali Let's Get It On e I Want You, e alcune hit come Let's Get It On che nel 1973 arriva prima per due settimane nella Billboard Hot 100, Got to Give It Up, e Sexual Healing.
La sua parabola artistica si chiuderà tragicamente: il primo aprile del 1984 (un giorno prima del suo quarantacinquesimo compleanno) verrà assassinato con un colpo di pistola per mano del padre, il predicatore Marvin Gaye Sr.
La rivista Rolling Stone lo inserisce al sesto posto nella sua lista dei 100 migliori cantanti di tutti i tempi e al diciottesimo in quella dei 100 migliori artisti

Biografia

Dalla nascita ai suoi primi successi

Gaye nacque a Washington, D.C. col vero nome di Marvin Pentz Gay, Jr., ma successivamente aggiunse la "e" al suo cognome sia per stroncare le prese in giro sia per apparire più professionale (si pensi ad esempio anche all'aggiunta della "e" di Sam Cooke) Suo padre, Marvin Gay senior, era catechista della Church of God, un piccolo gruppo distaccato della confessione religiosa degli Avventisti del Settimo Giorno. Tale setta, prendendo in prestito alcuni elementi dalla comunità cattolica ed altri da quella anglicana e ortodossa, ha codici di condotta molto rigidi e non è prevista la celebrazione di alcuna festività. Gaye iniziò a cantare nel coro di tale chiesa, prese lezioni di piano e percussioni per fuggire agli abusi psicologici messi in atto dal padre.
Dopo la scuola superiore, Gaye si arruolò nella United States Air Force, l'Aeronautica militare, e poi, dopo essere stato congedato, si unì a diversi gruppi di doo wop, fino ad arrivare ai The Marquees, un gruppo molto conosciuto a Washington D.C. Con Bo Diddley, i Marquees realizzarono un singolo, Wyatt Earp, nel 1958 con la Okeh Records e furono reclutati da Harvey Fuqua diventando poi così i The Moonglows. Mama Loocie, il singolo realizzato nel 1959 con la Chess Records, fu il primo singolo di Gaye con i Moonglows. Dopo un concerto a Detroit, Gaye fu scritturato per una carriera da solista da Berry Gordy, della Motown Records.

La Motown e la famiglia Gordy

All'inizio Gaye era un artista part-time: saltuariamente era un percussionista, un autore di canzoni lavorando con parecchi gruppi dell'epoca come The Miracles, The Contours, Martha & the Vandellas, e altri. Da notare la sua paternità delle percussioni nelle hit numero uno Please Mr. Postman delle Marvelettes nel 1961 e Fingertips Pt. 2 dei Little Stevie Wonder nel 1963. Poi scrisse insieme con altri autori, nel 1964, Dancing In The Street hit numero uno di Martha & the Vandellas e prima ancora nel 1962 un'altra numero uno, Beechwood 4-5789, hit delle Marvelettes. L'artista non solo era così diventato a pieno titolo un membro della famiglia Motown ma presto divenne anche membro della famiglia Gordy sposando Anna, sorella di Berry Gordy, nel 1964, dopo tre anni di corteggiamento.
Purtroppo i primi tre singoli di Marvin Gaye usciti con la Motown non riscossero tanto successo; solo nel 1962 raggiunse un piccolo risultato il quarto tentativo, Stubborn Kind of Fellow, con Martha & The Vandellas in cui Gaye era nel coro. Unica consolazione risiedeva nel fatto che il singolo era stato scritto da Gaye assieme a William "Mickey" Stevenson, che creò il titolo riferendosi maliziosamente alla lunaticità di Marvin. Ancora nel 1963 Hitch Hike e Can I Get a Witness il successo stentava a manifestarsi. Bisognerà attendere Pride & Joy, che nello stesso anno divenne una hit-bomba. Gaye però stava stretto nei panni che la Motown gli aveva cucito addosso: un cantante di ballate melodiche in cerca di successo nelle classifiche e nel mercato discografico. L'artista voleva invece fermamente essere un cantante pop seguendo le orme di Nat King Cole oppure di Frank Sinatra puntando però a fondere gli stili di tali artisti con quelli profondi e intensi di Jackie Wilson e del suo modello di riferimento Sam Cooke.

Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell

Alcuni più grandi successi di Marvin Gaye presso la Motown sono dei duetti con artiste donne come Mary Wells, Kim Weston e Tammi Terrell; il primo album Gaye/Wells, del 1964, Together, fu il primo album di Gaye a entrare nelle classifiche. Terrell e Gaye in particolare ebbero un ottimo rapporto, e il loro primo album fu, nel 1967, United, che conteneva pezzi divenuti celebri come Ain't No Mountain High Enough e Your Precious Love. Nickolas Ashford e Valerie Simpson, una coppia anche fuori dal lavoro, erano gli autori e i produttori dei dischi di Gaye e Terrell, i quali fingevano di esserlo nei dischi (sebbene voci dicessero che la finzione non fosse totale). Il 14 ottobre 1967 Terrell ebbe un collasso, cadendo tra le braccia di Gaye durante un concerto alla Hampton University in Virginia. Le fu in seguito diagnosticato un tumore al cervello e la sua salute continuò a peggiorare. Uscirono presso la Motown ancora alcuni dischi della coppia, nell'ultimo dei quali, Easy del 1969, le parti che dovevano essere cantate da Terrell erano in realtà eseguite principalmente da Valerie Simpson.
La malattia di Terrell portò alla depressione Gaye; quando la sua I Heard It Through the Grapevine, già registrata nel 1967 da Gladys Knight & The Pips, divenne il suo primo "numero uno" il 14 dicembre 1968 delle classifiche Billboard Hot 100 per sette settimane e nel Regno Unito ed il singolo di maggiori vendite della storia della Motown, con quattro milioni di copie vendute, rifiutò di godersi il successo, pensando di non averlo meritato. Il suo lavoro con il produttore Norman Whitfield, che produsse Grapevine, portò a successi analoghi per i singoli Too Busy Thinking About My Baby e That's the Way Love Is. Nel frattempo, il matrimonio di Gaye con Anna stava deteriorandosi ed egli continuava a sentirsi di poco spessore, cantando in continuazione di amore mentre la pop music subiva una rivoluzione iniziando a dedicarsi a temi sociali e politici. Alla ricerca di autonomia creativa, Marvin produsse alcuni singoli della session band della Motown The Originals, tra cui Baby I'm for Real e The Bells, che ebbero notevole successo.

What's Going On

Tammi Terrell morì di tumore il 16 marzo 1970. Devastato dalla sua morte, Marvin fu così emozionato ai funerali che parlò al corpo di lei come se si aspettasse che rispondesse. Gaye si ritirò quindi dalle scene, non eseguendo concerti per quasi due anni. Raccontava agli amici che aveva pensato di abbandonare la musica, ma dopo il successo delle sue produzioni con gli Originals, Gaye ebbe fiducia nel riuscire a esprimere il proprio messaggio musicale. Entrò quindi in studio di registrazione il 1º giugno 1970 e registrò le canzoni What's Going On, God Is Love e Sad Tomorrows – una prima versione di Flying High (In the Friendly Sky).
Gaye voleva pubblicare What's Going On ma il capo della Motown, Berry Gordy, rifiutò, trovandola "non commerciale". Gaye decise di non registrare più nulla finché Gordy cedette e la canzone divenne un successo inaspettato nel gennaio 1971. Gordy chiese dunque a Gaye un intero album di canzoni dello stesso genere. L'album What's Going On divenne uno dei momenti salienti della carriera di Gaye ed è oggi il suo lavoro più noto. Sia in termini di sonorità (influenzato da funk e jazz) sia di contenuti dei testi (molto spirituali) costituiva una rottura rispetto ai suoi primi lavori con la Motown. Altri due singoli, Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology) e Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler), entrarono nella "Top 10" pop e furono numero uno della classifica R&B. L'album divenne uno dei più memorabili album soul di tutti i tempi e introdusse l'idea di concept album, la nuova frontiera della musica soul.

Un successo continuo

Dopo il successo della colonna sonora del film blaxploitation Detective G (Trouble Man) del 1972, Marvin decise di lasciare l'argomento sociale per indirizzarsi verso temi sensuali, con la pubblicazione di Let's Get It On. L'album rappresentava una rottura per Gaye a causa della sua intensa sensualità ispirata dal successo di What's Going On e per la necessità di doverselo produrre da sé alla propria maniera. Let's Get It On divenne l'album di Marvin Gaye più venduto durante la sua vita, sorpassando What's Going On. Il singolo omonimo costituì per Gaye anche il singolo più venduto con la Motown, sopravanzando I Heard It Through the Grapevine.
Gaye iniziò a lavorare all'ultimo suo album duetto, stavolta con Diana Ross per il progetto Diana & Marvin. Le registrazioni cominciarono nel 1972, quando Ross era incinta del secondo figlio. Gaye si rifiutava di cantare se non poteva fumare nello studio, così l'album fu realizzato sovrapponendo le parti cantate da Ross e Gaye, registrate in sessioni separate. Pubblicato nell'autunno 1973, l'album portò nella "Top 20" dei singoli i pezzi You're a Special Part of Me e My Mistake (Was to Love You). Nel 1976 Gaye pubblicò l'album I Want You, in cui era contenuto il singolo omonimo che raggiunse il numero uno nella classifica R&B.

Gli ultimi anni e la morte

 

Nel 1977 Gaye pubblicò lo storico singolo funk, Got to Give It Up, che raggiunse il numero uno nelle classifiche pop, R&B e dance contemporaneamente e aiutò le vendite dell'album Live at the London Palladium, che superarono i due milioni di copie. L'anno seguente, dopo il divorzio da sua moglie Anna, acconsentì a versare parte dei suoi guadagni sul futuro album come alimenti all'ex moglie. Il risultato fu Here, My Dear, del 1978, che trattava gli aspetti amari del suo matrimonio al punto tale che Anna stava per denunciare Marvin per violazione della privacy. L'album vendette poco, nonostante sia stato in seguito rivalutato dalla critica. Nel 1979, oberato da guai fiscali e afflitto da tossicodipendenza, Gaye dichiarò fallimento e si trasferì alle Hawaii, dove visse in un furgone da panettiere.
Nel 1980 si accordò con l'impresario inglese Jeffrey Kruger per tenere concerti in Europa, tra cui uno davanti alla Principessa Margaret. Gaye arrivò però sul palco in enorme ritardo e ormai il teatro si era già svuotato. Durante il soggiorno a Londra Marvin lavorò a In Our Lifetime?, un disco complesso e profondamente personale. Quando la Motown pubblicò l'album, nel 1981, Gaye si infuriò: accusò la Motown di aver manipolato e remixato il disco senza il suo consenso, includendo una canzone non finita (Far Cry), togliendo il punto interrogativo dal titolo ed eliminando così la sottile ironia. Sempre nel 1980 tenne un celebre concerto al Montreux Jazz Festival, sicuramente una delle sue più memorabili esibizione dal vivo. Nel 1981 si stabilì a Ostenda, in Belgio, dove aveva trovato un'opportunità per sistemare i suoi problemi economici.
Rotti definitivamente i legami con la Motown, firmò un contratto con la Columbia Records nel 1982, pubblicando in quello stesso anno Midnight Love; esso includeva l'ultimo grande successo di Marvin, Sexual Healing. La canzone portò a Gaye i suoi primi due Grammy Award (miglior voce maschile R&B, miglior strumentazione R&B) nel febbraio 1983 (l'anno seguente fu nominato ancora a un Grammy come miglior voce maschile R&B, stavolta per l'album stesso Midnight Love). Sempre nel febbraio 1983, Gaye interpretò l'inno nazionale statunitense allo All-Star Game di pallacanestro. Poco dopo iniziò una tournée negli Stati Uniti per promuovere il suo album. Il tour, conclusosi nell'agosto dello stesso anno, fu segnato da problemi di salute e dalle ricadute di Gaye nella depressione e nella paura di essere vittima di un attentato alla propria vita. Quando il tour finì, si ritirò a vivere isolato in casa dei genitori.
Minacciò diverse volte di suicidarsi dopo numerosi aspri litigi con il padre, Marvin senior. Il cantante Little Richard rivelò che Gaye aveva premonizioni sul suo omicidio negli ultimi anni di vita. Il 1º aprile 1984, un giorno prima del suo quarantacinquesimo compleanno, il padre del cantante gli sparò, uccidendolo, al termine di una lite iniziata a causa di documenti sistemati male. Marvin senior fu quindi condannato a sei anni di reclusione dopo essersi dichiarato colpevole di omicidio. Le accuse di omicidio premeditato furono ritirate quando si scoprì che il figlio lo aveva aggredito prima di essere ucciso. Passò i suoi ultimi anni in una casa di riposo e morì di polmonite nel 1998. Alcune pubblicazioni postume mantennero viva la sua fama tra il pubblico. Gaye entrò nella Rock and Roll Hall of Fame nel 1987, quindi nella Hollywood Rock Walk nel 1989 ed ebbe una stella nella Hollywood Walk of Fame nel 1990.

Vita personale

Gaye si sposò due volte. Il suo primo matrimonio fu con Anna Gordy, sorella di Berry Gordy (lei era più anziana di lui di diciassette anni), che gli ispirò alcuni dei suoi successi tra cui Stubborn Kind of Fellow e You Are a Wonderful One; i due adottarono un figlio, Marvin Pentz Gaye III. Problematica fin dall'inizio, l'unione si guastò irrimediabilmente quando Gaye cominciò a corteggiare Janis Hunter (di diciassette anni più giovane di lui), la diciassettenne figlia dell'icona jazz Slim Gaillard, nel 1973 dopo la pubblicazione dell'album Let's Get It On. La Hunter fu anche una delle ispirazioni per la musica di Gaye, in particolare il periodo che include Let's Get It On e I Want You. Dalla loro relazione nacquero due figli, Nona e Frankie Christian. Marvin e Janis si sposarono dopo il divorzio di Marvin, nell'ottobre 1977. Poco dopo il loro matrimonio però i due si separarono a causa delle crescenti tensioni tra di loro, divorziando infine nel febbraio 1981. Dopo la morte di Gaye, due suoi figli iniziarono una carriera artistica: il maggiore, Marvin Pentz Gaye III, divenne un produttore discografico, mentre la figlia di Gaye, Nona, è stata modella, attrice e cantante. Solo il più giovane, Frankie Christian, non ha seguito le orme artistiche del padre.

L'influsso, i riconoscimenti e i premi

Tra i vari tributi a Gaye dopo la sua morte, si ricorda Missing You, canzone di Diana Ross (anche lei alla Motown), che entrò nella "top ten" pop nel 1985; un'altra artista Motown, Teena Marie, incluse nel suo album il pezzo My Dear Mr. Gaye. Il gruppo soul Maze, di cui faceva parte Frankie Beverly, incise la canzone-dedica Silky Soul (1989), in onore del loro mentore. Gaye viene citato in molti pezzi di diversi artisti, tra cui gli Spandau Ballet, i Commodores e George Michael e anche Elton John nella canzone Club at the End of the Streets del 1989. Nel 1995 alcuni artisti, tra cui Madonna, Stevie Wonder, Speech del gruppo hip hop Arrested Development e la figlia stessa di Gaye, Nona, resero omaggio a Marvin con un album realizzato in collaborazione con MTV, Inner City Blues: The Music of Marvin Gaye, che conteneva anche un documentario omonimo trasmesso da MTV.
Nel 1999, artisti R&B artists come D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Brian McKnight e Will Downing parteciparono a loro volta a un album tributo a Gaye, Marvin Is 60. Nell'ottobre 2001 fu realizzata una cover della canzone What's Going On, prodotta da Jermaine Dupri, e pubblicata per beneficenza nella lotta contro l'AIDS. Nella cover apparivano moltissimi artisti, tra cui Christina Aguilera, Mary J. Blige, Bono, Destiny's Child, Fred Durst dei Limp Bizkit, Nelly Furtado, Alicia Keys, Aaron Lewis del gruppo rock Staind, Nas, *N Sync, P. Diddy, ?uestlove dei The Roots, Britney Spears e Gwen Stefani. Partecipava anche Nona, che cantava uno dei versi più suggestivi della canzone: Father, father/we don't need to escalate (Padre, padre, non abbiamo bisogno di aggravare la situazione). Nel 1987 Marvin fece il suo ingresso postumo nella Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Gli fu inoltre attribuita una stella nella Hollywood Walk of Fame nel 1990.
Nel 1996 fu anche premiato con un Grammy Award alla carriera. Annie Lennox e Seal lo citarono in proprie canzoni. Nel 2004 la rivista Rolling Stone lo classificò al diciottesimo posto nella sua lista dei cento più grandi artisti di ogni tempo. Durante tutta la sua carriera, che copre cinque decenni includendo le pubblicazioni postume, Gaye ha avuto un totale di quarantuno singoli nella "Top 40" pop di Billboard, tra il 1963 e il 2001. È il quarto artista per numero di settimane di permanenza in testa alla classifica dei singoli R&B (52 settimane). Il singolo Let's Get It On è il singolo di maggiori vendite negli Stati Uniti della casa discografica Motown; a livello mondiale è invece un altro singolo di Gaye, I Heard It Through the Grapevine, a detenere il primato, grazie a forti vendite in Europa dovute al suo utilizzo in una pubblicità dei jeans Levi's. Sarebbe in corso di lavorazione un film documentario su Marvin Gaye, dal titolo Marvin - The Marvin Gaye Story, con la cantante Roberta Flack a dirigere l'aspetto musicale.
Nel 2015 l'artista emergente Charlie Puth realizza insieme alla cantante Meghan Trainor una canzone denominata appunto Marvin Gaye, a lui dedicata e comprendente nel testo molti riferimenti ai suoi brani.

Album

Solista

  • 1961: The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye
  • 1962: That Stubborn Kinda Fellow
  • 1963: Marvin Gaye Recorded Live on Stage
  • 1964: When I'm Alone I Cry
  • 1964: Hello Broadway
  • 1965: How Sweet It Is to Be Loved by You
  • 1965: A Tribute to the Great Nat "King" Cole
  • 1966: Moods of Marvin Gaye
  • 1967: Marvin Gaye at the Copa
  • 1968: In the Groove
  • 1969: M.P.G.
  • 1970: That's the Way Love Is
  • 1971: What's Going On
  • 1972: You're the Man
  • 1972: Trouble Man
  • 1973: Let's Get It On
  • 1974: Marvin Gaye Live!
  • 1976: I Want You
  • 1977: Live at the London Palladium
  • 1978: Here, My Dear
  • 1979: Love Man
  • 1981: In Our Lifetime
  • 1982: Midnight Love

Duetti

Marvin Gaye & Mary Wells
  • 1964: Together
  • 1967: United con Tammi Terrell
Marvin Gaye & Kim Weston
  • 1966: It Take Two
Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell
  • 1967: United, Ain't No Mountain High Enough
  • 1968: You're All I Need
  • 1969: Easy
Diana Ross & Marvin Gaye
  • 1973: Diana & Marvin

Riedizioni della Columbia Records

  • 1982: Midnight Love
  • 1985: Dream of a Lifetime
  • 1985: Romantically Yours

Compilation

Riedizioni Motown
  • 1964: Greatest Hits, Vol. 1
  • 1967: Greatest Hits, Vol. 2
  • 1969: Marvin Gaye and His Girls
  • 1970: Super Hits
  • 1970: Greatest Hits
  • 1974: Anthology
  • 1976: Marvin Gaye's Greatest Hits
  • 1983: Every Great Motown Hit of Marvin Gaye
  • 1984: Anthology
  • 1986: Motown Remembers Marvin Gaye
  • 1988: A Musical Testament: 1964-1984
  • 1988: 18 Greatest Hits
  • 1991: The Marvin Gaye Collection
  • 1994: The Norman Whitfield Sessions
  • 1995: Anthology
  • 1995: The Master: 1961/1984
  • 2000: 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Marvin Gaye, Vol. 1 - the 1960s
  • 2001: 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Marvin Gaye, Vol. 2 - the 1970s
  • 2001: 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell
  • 2001: The Complete Duets
  • 2001: Love Songs: Greatest Duets
  • 2002: Love Songs: Bedroom Ballads
  • 2002: The Very Best of Marvin Gaye
  • 2004: The Very Best of Marvin Gaye + DVD Live in Montreux

Deluxe Edition

Riedizioni Motown
  • 2001: What's Going On (Deluxe Edition)
  • 2001: Let's Get It On (Deluxe Edition)
  • 2003: I Want You (Deluxe Edition)
  • 2007: In Our Lifetime?
 acrylic painting / 90 cm x 100 cm
Florence Lefranc

Marvin Gaye (/ɡ/; born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr.; April 2, 1939 – April 1, 1984) was an American singer, songwriter and record producer. Gaye helped to shape the sound of Motown in the 1960s, first as an in-house session player and later as a solo artist with a string of hits, including "Ain't That Peculiar", "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By You)" and "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", and duet recordings with Mary Wells, Kim Weston, Diana Ross and Tammi Terrell, later earning the titles "Prince of Motown" and "Prince of Soul".
During the 1970s, he recorded the concept albums What's Going On and Let's Get It On and became one of the first artists in Motown to break away from the reins of their production company.
Gaye's later recordings influenced several contemporary R&B subgenres, such as quiet storm and neo soul. Following a period in Europe as a tax exile in the early 1980s, Gaye released the 1982 Grammy Award-winning hit "Sexual Healing" and its parent album Midnight Love.
On April 1, 1984, Gaye's father, Marvin Gay Sr., fatally shot him at their house in the West Adams district of Los Angeles. Since his death, many institutions have posthumously bestowed Gaye with awards and other honors—including the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

Early life


Marvin Gaye was born as Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. on April 2, 1939, in Washington, D.C., to church minister Marvin Gay Sr., and domestic worker Alberta Gay (née Cooper). His first home was 1617 First Street SW, a few blocks from the Anacostia River. The First Street neighborhood was nicknamed Simple City, owing to its being "half-city, half country". When Gaye was in his teens, the family relocated first to Columbia Heights, where the family lived at 1417 Monroe Street NW, then to the Deanwood section of the city, where they settled at 10 60th Street NE. Gaye was the second eldest of Gay Sr.'s children and the third overall of six. He had two sisters: Jeanne and Zeola, and three brothers: Michael Cooper, Frankie Gaye, and Antwaun Gay. Michael Cooper was from his mother's previous relationship while Antwaun was born as a result of his father's extramarital affairs.
Gaye started singing in church when he was four years old; his father often accompanied him on piano. Gaye and his family were part of a Pentecostal church known as the House of God. The House of God took its teachings from Hebrew Pentecostalism, advocated strict conduct, and adhered to both the Old and New Testaments. Gaye developed a love of singing at an early age and was encouraged to pursue a professional music career after a performance at a school play at 11 singing Mario Lanza's "Be My Love". His home life consisted of "brutal whippings" by his father, who struck him for any shortcoming. The young Gaye described living in his father's house as similar to "...living with a king, a very peculiar, changeable, cruel, and all powerful king." He felt that had his mother not consoled him and encouraged his singing, he would have killed himself. His sister later explained that Gaye was beaten often, from age seven well into his teenage years.
Gaye attended Cardozo High School and joined several doo-wop vocal groups, including the Dippers and the D.C. Tones. Gaye's relationship with his father worsened during his teenage years, as his father would kick him out of the house often. In 1956, 17-year-old Gaye dropped out of high school and enlisted in the United States Air Force as a basic airman. Disappointed in having to perform menial tasks, he faked mental illness and was discharged shortly afterwards. Gaye's sergeant stated that he refused to follow orders.

Career

Early career

Following his return, Gaye and good friend Reese Palmer formed the vocal quartet The Marquees. The group performed in the D.C. area and soon began working with Bo Diddley, who assigned the group to Columbia subsidiary OKeh Records after failing to get the group signed to his own label, Chess. The group's sole single, "Wyatt Earp" (co-written by Bo Diddley), failed to chart and the group was soon dropped from the label. Gaye began composing music during this period.
Moonglows co-founder Harvey Fuqua later hired The Marquees as employees. Under Fuqua's direction, the group changed its name to Harvey and the New Moonglows, and relocated to Chicago. The group recorded several sides for Chess in 1959, including the song "Mama Loocie", which was Gaye's first lead vocal recording. The group found work as session singers for established acts such as Chuck Berry, singing on the hits "Back in the U.S.A." and "Almost Grown."
In 1960, the group disbanded. Gaye relocated to Detroit with Fuqua where he signed with Tri-Phi Records as a session musician, playing drums on several Tri-Phi releases. Gaye performed at Motown president Berry Gordy's house during the holiday season in 1960. Impressed by the singer, Gordy sought Fuqua on his contract with Gaye. Fuqua agreed to sell part of his interest in his contract with Gaye. Shortly afterwards, Gaye signed with Motown subsidiary Tamla.
When Gaye signed with Tamla, he pursued a career as a performer of jazz music and standards, having no desire to become an R&B performer. Before the release of his first single, Gaye was teased about his surname, with some jokingly asking, "Is Marvin Gay?" Gaye changed his surname by adding an e, in the same way as did Sam Cooke. Author David Ritz wrote that Gaye did this to silence rumours of his sexuality, and to put more distance between Gaye and his father.
Gaye released his first single, "Let Your Conscience Be Your Guide", in May 1961, with the album The Soulful Moods of Marvin Gaye, following a month later. Gaye's initial recordings failed commercially and he spent most of 1961 performing session work as a drummer for artists such as The Miracles, The Marvelettes and blues artist Jimmy Reed for $5 (US$40 in 2016 dollars) a week. While Gaye took some advice on performing with his eyes open (having been accused of appearing as though he were sleeping), he refused to attend grooming school courses at the John Roberts Powers School for Social Grace in Detroit because of his unwillingness to comply with its orders, something he later regretted.

Initial success

In 1962, Gaye found success as co-writer of the Marvelettes hit, "Beechwood 4-5789". His first solo hit, "Stubborn Kind of Fellow", was later released that September, reaching No. 8 on the R&B chart and No. 46 on the Billboard Hot 100. Gaye reached the top 40 with the dance song, "Hitch Hike", peaking at No. 30 on the Hot 100. "Pride and Joy" became Gaye's first top ten single after its release in 1963.
The three singles and songs from the 1962 sessions were included on Gaye's second album, That Stubborn Kinda Fellow. Starting in October of the year, Gaye performed as part of the Motortown Revue, a series of concert tours headlined at the north and south eastern coasts of the United States as part of the chitlin' circuit. A filmed performance of Gaye at the Apollo Theater took place in June 1963. Later that October, Tamla issued the live album, Marvin Gaye Recorded Live on Stage. "Can I Get a Witness" became one of Gaye's early international hits.
In 1964, Gaye recorded a successful duet album with singer Mary Wells titled Together, which reached No. 42 on the pop album chart. The album's two-sided single, including "Once Upon a Time" and 'What's the Matter With You Baby", each reach the top 20. Gaye's next solo hit, "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By You)", which Holland-Dozier-Holland wrote for him, reached No. 6 on the Hot 100 and reached the top 50 in the UK. Gaye started getting television exposure around this time, on shows such as American Bandstand. Also in 1964, he appeared in the concert film, The T.A.M.I. Show. Gaye had two number-one R&B singles in 1965 with the Miracles–composed "I'll Be Doggone" and "Ain't That Peculiar". Both songs became million-sellers. After this, Gaye returned to jazz-derived ballads for a tribute album to the recently-deceased Nat "King" Cole.
 After scoring a hit duet, "It Takes Two" with Kim Weston, Gaye began working with Tammi Terrell on a series of duets, mostly composed by Ashford & Simpson, including "Ain't No Mountain High Enough", "Your Precious Love", "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" and "You're All I Need to Get By".
In October 1967, Terrell collapsed in Gaye's arms during a performance in Farmville, Virginia. Terrell was subsequently rushed to Farmville's Southside Community Hospital, where doctors discovered she had a malignant tumour in her brain. The diagnosis ended Terrell's career as a live performer, though she continued to record music under careful supervision. Despite the presence of hit singles such as "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" and "You're All I Need to Get By", Terrell's illness caused problems with recording, and led to multiple operations to remove the tumor. Gaye was reportedly devastated by Terrell's sickness and became disillusioned with the record business.
On October 6, 1968, Gaye sang the national anthem during Game 4 of the 1968 World Series, held at Tiger Stadium, in Detroit, Michigan, and played between the Detroit Tigers and the St. Louis Cardinals.
In late 1968, Gaye's recording of I Heard It Through the Grapevine became Gaye's first to reach No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100. It also reached the top of the charts in other countries, selling over four million copies. However, Gaye felt the success was something he "didn't deserve" and that he "felt like a puppet — Berry's puppet, Anna's puppet...." Gaye followed it up with "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby" and "That's the Way Love Is", which reached the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1969. That year, his album M.P.G. became his first No. 1 R&B album. Gaye produced and co-wrote two hits for The Originals during this period, including "Baby I'm For Real" and "The Bells".
Terrell died from brain cancer on March 16, 1970: Gaye attended her funeral. After a period of depression, Gaye sought out a position on a professional football team, the Detroit Lions, where he later befriended Mel Farr and Lem Barney. It was eventually decided that Gaye would not be allowed to try out owing to fears of possible injuries that could have affected his music career.

What's Going On and subsequent success


On June 1, 1970, Gaye returned to Hitsville U.S.A., where he recorded his new composition "What's Going On", inspired by an idea from Renaldo "Obie" Benson of the Four Tops after he witnessed an act of police brutality at an anti-war rally in Berkeley. Upon hearing the song, Berry Gordy refused its release due to his feelings of the song being "too political" for radio. Gaye responded by going on strike from recording until the label released the song. Released in 1971, it reached No. 1 on the R&B charts within a month, staying there for five weeks. It also reached the top spot on Cashbox's pop chart for a week and reached No. 2 on the Hot 100 and the Record World chart, selling over two million copies.
After giving an ultimatum to record a full album to win creative control from Motown, Gaye spent ten days recording the What's Going On album that March. Motown issued the album that May after Gaye remixed portions of the album in Hollywood. The album became Gaye's first million-selling album launching two more top ten singles, "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" and "Inner City Blues". One of Motown's first autonomous works, its theme and segue flow brought the concept album format to rhythm and blues. An AllMusic writer later cited it as "...the most important and passionate record to come out of soul music, delivered by one of its finest voices." For the album, Gaye received two Grammy Award nominations and several NAACP Image Awards. The album also topped Rolling Stone's year-end list as its album of the year. Billboard magazine named Gaye Trendsetter of the Year following the album's success.
In 1971, Gaye signed a new deal with Motown worth $1 million (US$5,852,917 in 2016 dollars), making it the most lucrative deal by a black recording artist at the time. Gaye first responded to the new contract with the soundtrack and subsequent score, Trouble Man, released in late 1972.
In 1973, Gaye released the Let's Get It On album. Its title track became Gaye's second No. 1 single on the Hot 100. The album subsequently stayed on the charts for two years and sold over three million copies. The album was later hailed as "a record unparalleled in its sheer sensuality and carnal energy." Other singles from the album included "Come Get to This", which recalled Gaye's early Motown soul sound of the previous decade, while the suggestive "You Sure Love to Ball" reached modest success but received tepid promotion due to the song's sexually explicit content.
Marvin's final duet project, Diana & Marvin, with Diana Ross, garnered international success despite contrasting artistic styles. Responding to demand from fans and Motown, Gaye started his first tour in four years at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum on January 4, 1974. The performance received critical acclaim and resulted in the release of the live album, Marvin Gaye Live! and its single, a live version of Distant Lover, an album track from Let's Get It On.
The tour helped to increase Gaye's reputation as a live performer. For a time, he was earning $10,000 a night (US$48,063 in 2016 dollars) for performances. Gaye toured throughout 1974 and 1975. A renewed contract with Motown allowed Gaye to build his own custom-made recording studio.
In October 1975, Gaye gave a performance at a UNESCO benefit concert at New York's Radio City Music Hall to support UNESCO's African literacy drive, resulting in him being commended at the United Nations by then-Ambassador to Ghana Shirley Temple Black and Kurt Waldheim. Gaye's next studio album, I Want You, followed in 1976 with the title track becoming a No. 1 R&B hit. That summer, Gaye embarked on his first European tour in a decade, starting off in England. In early 1977, Gaye released the live album, Live at the London Palladium, which sold over two million copies thanks to the success of its studio song, "Got to Give It Up", which became a No. 1 hit.

Last Motown recordings and European exile


In December 1978, Gaye released Here, My Dear, inspired by the fallout of his first marriage to Anna Gordy. Recorded as an intent for Gaye to remit a portion of its royalties to her to receive alimony payments, it performed poorly on the charts. During that period, Gaye developed a serious dependence and addiction to cocaine and was dealing with several financial issues with the IRS. These issues led him to move to Maui, Hawaii, where he struggled to record a disco album. In 1980, Gaye went on a European tour. By the time the tour stopped, the singer relocated to London where he feared imprisonment for failure to pay back taxes, which had now reached upwards of $4.5 million.(US$12,945,679 in 2016 dollars)
Gaye then reworked Love Man from its original disco concept to another personal album invoking religion and the possible end time from a chapter in the Book of Revelation. Titling the album In Our Lifetime?, Gaye worked on the album for much of 1980 in London studios such as Air and Odyssey Studios.
In the fall of that year, someone stole a master tape of a rough draft of the album from one of Gaye's traveling musicians, Frank Blair, taking the master tape to Motown's Hollywood headquarters. Motown remixed the album and released it on January 15, 1981. When Gaye learned of its release, he accused Motown of editing and remixing the album without his consent, allowing the release of an unfinished production (Far Cry), altering the album art of his request and removing the album title's question mark, muting its irony. He also accused the label of rush-releasing the album, comparing his unfinished album to an unfinished Picasso painting. Gaye then vowed not to record any more music for Motown.
On February 14, 1981, under the advice of music promoter Freddy Cousaert, Gaye relocated to Cousaert's apartment in Ostend, Belgium. While there, Gaye shied away from heavy drug use and began exercising and attending a local Ostend church, regaining personal confidence. Following several months of recovery, Gaye sought a comeback onstage, starting the short-lived Heavy Love Affair tour in England and Ostend in June–July 1981. Gaye's personal attorney Curtis Shaw would later describe Gaye's Ostend period as "the best thing that ever happened to Marvin". When word got around that Gaye was planning a musical comeback and an exit from Motown, CBS Urban president Larkin Arnold eventually was able to convince Gaye to sign with CBS. On March 23, 1982, Motown and CBS Records negotiated Gaye's release from Motown. The details of the contract were not revealed due to a possible negative effect on the singer's settlement to creditors from the IRS.

Midnight Love

Assigned to CBS' Columbia subsidiary, Gaye worked on his first post-Motown album titled Midnight Love. The first single, "Sexual Healing" which was written and recorded in Ostend in his apartment, was released on September 30, 1982, and became Gaye's biggest career hit, spending a record ten weeks at No. 1 on the Hot Black Singles chart, becoming the biggest R&B hit of the 1980s according to Billboard stats. The success later translated to the Billboard Hot 100 chart in January 1983 where it peaked at No. 3, while the record reached international success, reaching the top spot in New Zealand and Canada and reaching the top ten on the United Kingdom's OCC singles chart, later selling over two million copies in the U.S. alone, becoming Gaye's most successful single to date. The video for the song was shot at Ostend's Casino-Kursaal.
Sexual Healing won Gaye his first two Grammy Awards including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance, in February 1983, and also won Gaye an American Music Award in the R&B-soul category. People magazine called it "America's hottest musical turn-on since Olivia Newton-John demanded we get Physical." Midnight Love was released to stores a day after the single's release, and was equally successful, peaking at the top ten of the Billboard 200 and becoming Gaye's eighth No. 1 album on the Top Black Albums chart, eventually selling over six million copies worldwide, three million alone in the U.S.
NME – December 1982
On February 13, 1983, Gaye sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" at the NBA All-Star Game at The Forum in Inglewood, California—accompanied by Gordon Banks, who played the studio tape from the stands. The following month, Gaye performed at the Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever special. This and a May appearance on Soul Train (his third appearance on the show) became Gaye's final television performances. Gaye embarked on his final concert tour, titled the Sexual Healing Tour, on April 18, 1983, in San Diego. The tour ended on August 14, 1983 at the Pacific Amphitheatre in Costa Mesa, California but was plagued by cocaine-triggered paranoia and illness. Following the concert's end, he retreated to his parents' house in Los Angeles. In early 1984, Midnight Love was nominated for a Grammy in the Best Male R&B Vocal Performance category, his 12th and final nomination.

Death

At around 12:38 p.m. (PST) on April 1, 1984, while Gaye was in his bedroom, his father Marvin Gay Sr. shot Gaye in the heart and then in his left shoulder, the latter shot taken at point-blank range. Minutes earlier, the two men had been involved in a physical altercation after Gaye intervened in an argument between his parents. The first shot proved to be fatal. Gaye was pronounced dead at 1:01 p.m. (PST) after his body arrived at California Hospital Medical Center.
After Gaye's funeral, his body was cremated at Forest Lawn Memorial Park at the Hollywood Hills; his ashes were later scattered into the Pacific Ocean. Initially charged with first-degree murder, Gay Sr.'s charges dropped to voluntary manslaughter following a diagnosis of a brain tumor and Gaye's autopsy revealing the singer had drugs in his system. Marvin Gay Sr. was later sentenced to a suspended six-year sentence and probation. He died at a nursing home in 1998.

Personal life


Marvin was the father of three children, Marvin III, Nona, and Frankie, and the grandfather of three boys, Marvin IV, Nolan, and Dylan. At the time of his death, he was survived by his three children, parents, and five siblings.

Musicianship

Influences

As a child, Gaye's main influence was his minister father, something he later acknowledged to biographer David Ritz, and also in interviews, often mentioning that his father's sermons greatly impressed him. His first major musical influences were doo-wop groups such as The Moonglows and The Capris. Gaye's Rock & Roll Hall of Fame page lists the Capris' song, God Only Knows as "critical to his musical awakening." Of the Capris' song, Gaye said, "It fell from the heavens and hit me between the eyes. So much soul, so much hurt. I related to the story, to the way that no one except the Lord really can read the heart of lonely kids in love." Gaye's main musical influences were Rudy West of The Five Keys, Clyde McPhatter, Ray Charles and Little Willie John. Gaye considered Frank Sinatra a major influence in what he wanted to be. He also was influenced by the vocal styles of Billy Eckstine and Nat King Cole.
Later on as his Motown career developed, Gaye would seek inspiration in fellow label mates such as David Ruffin of The Temptations and Levi Stubbs of the Four Tops as their grittier voices led to Gaye and his producer seeking a similar sound in recordings such as "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and "That's the Way Love Is". Later in his life, Gaye reflected on the influence of Ruffin and Stubbs stating, "I had heard something in their voices something my own voice lacked". He further explained, "the Tempts and Tops' music made me remember that when a lot of women listen to music, they want to feel the power of a real man."

Vocal style

Gaye had a three-octave vocal range. From his earlier recordings as member of the Marquees and Harvey and the New Moonglows, and in his first several recordings with Motown, Gaye recorded mainly in the baritone and tenor ranges. He changed his tone to a rasp for his gospel-inspired early hits such as "Stubborn Kind of Fellow" and "Hitch Hike". As writer Eddie Holland explained, "He was the only singer I have ever heard known to take a song of that nature, that was so far removed from his natural voice where he liked singing, and do whatever it took to sell that song."
In songs such as "Pride and Joy", Gaye used three different vocal ranges—singing in his baritone range at the beginning, bringing a lighter tenor in the verses before reaching a gospel mode in the chorus. Holland further stated of Gaye's voice that it was "...one of the sweetest and prettiest voices you ever wanted to hear." And while he noted that ballads and jazz was "his basic soul", he stated Gaye "...had the ability to take a roughhouse, rock and roll, blues, R&B, any kind of song and make it his own", later saying that Gaye was the most versatile vocalist he had ever worked with.
Gaye changed his vocal style in the late 1960s, when he was advised to use a sharper, raspy voice—especially in Norman Whitfield's recordings. Gaye initially disliked the new style, considering it out of his range, but said he was "into being produce-able." After listening to David Ruffin and Levi Stubbs, Gaye said he started to develop what he called his "tough man voice"—saying, "I developed a growl." In the liner notes of his DVD set, Marvin Gaye: The Real Thing in Performance 1964–1981, Rob Bowman said that by the early 1970s, Gaye had developed "three distinct voices: his smooth, sweet tenor; a growling rasp; and an unreal falsetto." Bowman further wrote that the recording of the What's Going On single was "...the first single to utilize all three as Marvin developed a radical approach to constructing his recordings by layering a series of contrapuntal background vocal lines on different tracks, each one conceived and sung in isolation by Marvin himself." Bowman cites Gaye's multi-tracking of his tenor voice and other vocal styles "summon[ed] up what might be termed the ancient art of weaving".

Social commentary and concept albums

Prior to recording the What's Going On album, Gaye recorded a cover of the song, "Abraham, Martin & John", which became a UK hit in 1970. Only a handful of artists of various genres had recorded albums that focused on social commentary, including Curtis Mayfield. Despite some politically conscious material recorded by The Temptations in the late 1960s, Motown artists were often told to not delve into political and social commentary, fearing alienation from pop audiences. Early in his career, Gaye was affected by social events such as the 1965 Watts riots and once asked himself, "with the world exploding around me, how am I supposed to keep singing love songs?" When the singer called Gordy in the Bahamas about wanting to do protest music, Gordy cautioned him, "Marvin, don't be ridiculous. That's taking things too far."
Gaye was inspired by the Black Panther Party and supported the efforts they put forth like giving free meals to poor families door to door, however, he did not support the violent tactics the Panthers used to fight oppression, as Gaye's messages in many of his political songs were nonviolent. The lyrics and music of What's Going On discuss and illustrate issues during the 1960s/1970s such as police brutality, drug abuse, environmental issues, anti-war, and black power issues. Gaye was inspired to make this album because of events such as the Vietnam War, the 1967 race riots in Detroit, and the Kent State shootings.
Once Gaye presented Gordy with the What's Going On album, Gordy feared Gaye was risking the ruination of his image as a sex symbol. Following the album's success, Gaye tried a follow-up album that he would label You're the Man. The title track only produced modest success, however, and Gaye and Motown shelved the album. Later on, several of Gaye's unreleased songs of social commentary, including "The World Is Rated X", would be issued on posthumous compilation albums. What's Going On would later be described by an AllMusic writer as an album that "not only redefined soul music as a creative force but also expanded its impact as an agent for social change".
The album also provided another first in both Motown and R&B music: Gaye and his engineers had composed the album in a song cycle, segueing previous songs into other songs giving the album a more cohesive feel as opposed to R&B albums that traditionally included filler tracks to complete the album. This style of music would influence recordings by artists such as Stevie Wonder and Barry White making the concept album format a part of 1970s R&B music. Concept albums are usually based on either one theme or a series of themes in connection to the original thesis of the album's concept. Let's Get It On repeated the suite-form arrangement of What's Going On, as would Gaye's later albums such as I Want You, Here, My Dear and In Our Lifetime.
Although Marvin Gaye was not actually doing social justice work outside of his music, he became a public figure for social change and inspired/educated many people through his work.

Legacy

Marvin Gaye has been called, "The number-one purveyor of soul music." In his book, Mercy Mercy Me: The Art, Loves and Demons of Marvin Gaye, Michael Eric Dyson described Gaye as someone "...who transcended the boundaries of rhythm and blues as no other performer had done before." Following his death, The New York Times described Gaye as someone who "blended the soul music of the urban scene with the beat of the old-time gospel singer and became an influential force in pop music". Further in the article, Gaye was also credited with combining "the soulful directness of gospel music, the sweetness of soft-soul and pop, and the vocal musicianship of a jazz singer." His recordings for Motown in the 1960s and 1970s shaped that label's signature sound. His work with Motown gave him the titles Prince of Soul and Prince of Motown. Critics stated that Gaye's music "...signified the development of black music from raw rhythm and blues, through sophisticated soul to the political awareness of the 1970s and increased concentration on personal and sexual politics thereafter." As a Motown artist, Gaye was among the first to break from the reins of its production system, paving the way for Stevie Wonder. Gaye's late 1970s and early 1980s recordings influenced contemporary forms of R&B predating the subgenres quiet storm and neo-soul.
Artists from many genres have covered Gaye's music, including James Taylor, Brian McKnight, Kate Bush, Chico DeBarge, Michael McDonald, Aretha Franklin, Diana Ross, Aaliyah, A Perfect Circle, The Strokes and Gil Scott-Heron. Other artists such as D'Angelo, Common, Nas and Maxwell interpolated parts of Gaye's clothing from the singer's mid-1970s period. Gaye's clothing style was later was appropriated by Eddie Murphy in his role as James "Thunder" Early in Dreamgirls. Gaye's military-styled clothing attire in his final tour influenced Michael Jackson. According to David Ritz, "Since 1983, Marvin's name has been mentioned—in reverential tones—on no less than seven top-ten hit records." Later performers such as Kanye West and Mary J. Blige sampled Gaye's work for their recordings.

Awards and honors

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted him in 1987, declaring that Gaye "...made a huge contribution to soul music in general and the Motown Sound in particular." The page stated that Gaye "...possessed a classic R&B voice that was edged with grit yet tempered with sweetness." The page further states that Gaye "...projected an air of soulful authority driven by fervid conviction and heartbroken vulnerability." A year after his death, then-mayor of D.C., Marion Barry declared April 2 as "Marvin Gaye Jr. Memorial Scholarship Fund Day" in the city. Since then, a non-profit organization has helped to organize annual Marvin Gaye Day Celebrations in the city of Washington.
A year later, Gaye's mother founded the Marvin P. Gaye Jr. Memorial Foundation in dedication to her son to help those suffering from drug abuse and alcoholism; however she died a day before the memorial was set to open in 1987. Gaye's sister Jeanne once served as the foundation's chairperson. In 1990, Gaye received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1996, Gaye posthumously received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame listed three Gaye recordings, "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "What's Going On" and "Sexual Healing", among its list of the 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll. American music magazine Rolling Stone ranked Gaye No. 18 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" and sixth on their list of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Q magazine ranked Gaye sixth on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers".
Three of Gaye's albums — What's Going On (1971), Let's Get It On (1973), and Here, My Dear (1978) — were ranked by Rolling Stone on their list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. What's Going On remains his largest-ranked album, reaching No. 6 on the Rolling Stone list and topped the NME list of the Top 100 Albums of All Time in 1985 and was later chosen in 2003 for inclusion by the Library of Congress to its National Recording Registry. In addition, four of his songs — "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "What's Going On, "Let's Get It On" and "Sexual Healing" — made it on the Rolling Stone list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.
In 2006, a park that Gaye frequented as a teenager called Watts Branch Park in Washington was renamed Marvin Gaye Park. Three years later, the 5200 block of Foote Street NE in Deanwood, Washington, D.C., was renamed Marvin Gaye Way. In August 2014, Gaye was inducted to the official Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame in its second class. In October 2015, the Songwriters Hall of Fame announced Gaye as a nominee for induction to the Hall's 2016 class after posthumous nominations were included. Gaye was named as a posthumous inductee to that hall on March 2, 2016. Gaye was subsequently inducted to the Songwriters Hall on June 9, 2016.

In popular culture

His 1983 NBA All-Star performance of the national anthem was used in a Nike commercial featuring the 2008 U.S. Olympic basketball team. Also, on CBS Sports' final NBA telecast to date (before the contract moved to NBC) at the conclusion of Game 5 of the 1990 Finals, they used Gaye's 1983 All-Star Game performance over the closing credits. When VH1 launched on January 1, 1985, Gaye's 1983 rendition of the national anthem was the very first video they aired. Most recently, it was used in the intro to Ken Burns' Tenth Inning documentary on the game of baseball.
"I Heard It Through the Grapevine" was played in a Levi's ad in 1985. The result of the commercial's success led to the original song finding renewed success in Europe after Tamla-Motown re-released it in the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. In 1986, the song was covered by Buddy Miles as part of a California Raisins ad campaign. The song was later used for chewing gum commercials in Finland and to promote a brand of Lucky Strike cigarettes in Germany.
Gaye's music has also been used in numerous film soundtracks including Four Brothers and Captain America: The Winter Soldier, both of which featured Gaye's music from his Trouble Man soundtrack. "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" was used in the opening credits of the film, The Big Chill. Gaye's music has also become a source for samples in hip-hop recordings.
In 2007, his song, "A Funky Space Reincarnation", was used in the Charlize Theron–starred ad for Dior J'Adore perfume. A documentary about Gaye—What's Going On: The Marvin Gaye Story—was a UK/PBS co-production, directed by Jeremy Marre and was first broadcast in 2006. Two years later, the special re-aired with a different production and newer interviews after it was re-broadcast as an American Masters special. Another documentary, focusing on his 1981 documentary, Transit Ostend, titled Remember Marvin, aired in 2006.

Earnings

In 2008, Gaye's estate earned $3.5 million (US$3,853,246 in 2016 dollars). As a result, Gaye took 13th place in "Top-Earning Dead Celebrities" in Forbes magazine.
On March 11, 2015, Gaye's family was awarded $7.3 million in damages following a decision by an eight-member jury in Los Angeles that Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams had breached copyright by incorporating part of Gaye's song "Got to Give It Up" into their hit "Blurred Lines".

Attempted biopics

There have been several attempts to adapt Gaye's life story into a feature film. In February 2006, it was reported that Jesse L. Martin was to portray Gaye in a biopic titled Sexual Healing, named after Gaye's 1982 song of the same name. The film was to have been directed by Lauren Goodman and produced by James Gandolfini and Alexandra Ryan. The film was to depict the final three years of Gaye's life. Years later, other producers such as Jean-Luc Van Damme, Frederick Bestall and Jimmy De Brabant, came aboard and Goodman was replaced by Julien Temple. Lenny Kravitz was almost slated to playing Gaye. The script was to be written by Matthew Broughton. The film was to have been distributed by Focus Features and released on April 1, 2014, the thirtieth anniversary of Gaye's death. This never came to fruition and it was announced that Focus Features no longer has involvement with the Gaye biopic as of June 2013.
In June 2008, it was announced that F. Gary Gray was going to direct a biopic titled Marvin. The script was to be written by C. Gaby Mitchell and the film was to be produced by David Foster and Duncan McGillivray and co-produced by Ryan Heppe. According to Gray, the film would cover Gaye's entire life, from his emergence at Motown through his defiance of Berry Gordy to record What's Going On and on up to his death.
Cameron Crowe had also been working on a biopic titled My Name Is Marvin. The film was to have been a Sony presentation with Scott Rudin as producer. Both Will Smith and Terrence Howard were considered for the role of Gaye. Crowe later confirmed in August 2011 that he abandoned the project: "We were working on the Marvin Gaye movie which is called My Name is Marvin, but the time just wasn’t right for that movie."
Members of Gaye's family, such as his ex-wife Janis and his son Marvin III, have expressed opposition to a biopic.
On December 9, 2015, Roger Friedman spoke of a biopic to be directed by F. Gary Gray was approved by Berry Gordy and Suzanne de Passe as well as Gaye's family, following the success of Gray's Straight Outta Compton biopic based on the hip-hop act, N.W.A.
In July 2016, it was announced that a feature film documentary on Gaye will be released next year delving into the life of the musician and the making of his 1971 album, What's Going On. The film would be developed by Noah Media Group and Greenlight and is quoted to be "the defining portrait of this visionary artist and his impeccable album" by the film's producers Gabriel Clarke and Torquil Jones. The film will include "unseen footage" of the singer. Gaye's family approved of the documentary.

Acting

Gaye acted in two movies. Interestingly both were to do with Vietnam veterans. One was in 1969 in the George Cowan directed film, The Ballad of Andy Crocker which starred Lee Majors. The film was about a war veteran returning to find that his expectations haven't been met and he feels betrayed. Gaye had a prominent role in the film as David Owens. The other was in 1971. He had a role in the Lee Frost directed biker-exploitation film, Chrome and Hot Leather, a film about a group of Vietnam veterans taking on a bike gang. The film starred William Smith and he played the part of Jim, one of the veterans. Gaye did have acting aspirations and had signed with the William Morris Agency but that only lasted a year as Gaye wasn't satisfied with the support he was getting from the agency.

Filmography

  • 1965: T.A.M.I. Show (documentary)
  • 1969: The Ballad of Andy Crocker (television movie)
  • 1971: Chrome and Hot Leather (television movie)
  • 1973: Save the Children (documentary)

Videography

  • Marvin Gaye: Live in Montreux 1980 (2003)
  • The Real Thing: In Performance (1964–1981) (2006)

 

Marvin Gaye - What's Going On - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-kA3UtBj4M
29 dic 2010 - Caricato da SuperWhoopass
Marvin Gaye - What's Going On (Album Version) Couldn't find this anywhere on here, thought I'd do this ...
11 giu 2008 - Caricato da Eagle Rock
For more info - http://www.eagle-rock.com/artist/marvin-gaye/#.U-jRBThwYdU http://smarturl.it ...

 
 

Marvin Gaye - Heard It Through The Grapevine (Live at Montreux ...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7dGdrP3pms
11 giu 2008 - Caricato da Eagle Rock
For more info - http://www.eagle-rock.com/artist/marvin-gaye/#.U-jRBThwYdU http://smarturl.it ...


Marvin Gaye - Lets get it on on Vimeo

https://vimeo.com › wowbeibi › Videos
This is "Marvin Gaye - Lets get it on" by on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them.

Marvin Gaye Best Version of Lets Get It On - YouTube

▶ 6:29
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_IeKcPamWg
11 feb 2009 - Caricato da Brandon c
This has to be Marvin Gaye's best version of "Lets get it on" I wish I knew where it was recorded. "I've been ...

Marvin Gaye - Sexual Healing - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjlSiASsUIs
06 dic 2013 - Caricato da MarvinGayeVEVO
Marvin Gaye's official music video for 'Sexual Healing'. Click to listen to Marvin Gaye on Spotify: http ...


MARVIN GAYE & TAMMI TERRELL "Ain't no Mountain High Enough ...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xz-UvQYAmbg
16 giu 2006 - Caricato da blaxter47
With Gaye, Terrell scored seven Top 40 singles on the Billboard Hot 100, including "Ain't No Mountain High ...
06 mar 2014 - Caricato da Eagle Rock
Marvin Gaye - Ain




 "Marvin Gaye - Sexual healing" (2014) acryl op paneel (100 x 100 cm) door de Belgische kunstschilder Willy Bosschem

People gathering outside the home where Marvin Gaye was fatally shot, April 1, 1984.
 


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