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Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) anarchist French painter and printmaker.

Henri-Edmond Cross

Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker. He is most acclaimed as a master of Neo-Impressionism, and he played an important role in shaping the second phase of that movement. He was very influential to Henri Matisse and many other artists, and his work was an instrumental influence in the development of Fauvism.


Background and education

Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix was born in Douai, a commune in the Nord département in northern France, on 20 May 1856. He had no surviving siblings. His parents, with a family history of ironmongery, were French adventurer Alcide Delacroix and British Fanny Woollett.
In 1865 the family moved near Lille, a northern French city close to the Belgian border. Alcide's cousin, Dr. Auguste Soins, recognized Henri's artistic talent and was very supportive of his artistic inclinations, even financing the boy's first drawing instructions under painter Carolus-Duran the following year. Henri was Duran's protégé for a year. His studies continued for a short time in Paris in 1875 with François Bonvin before returning to Lille. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and in 1878, he enrolled at the Écoles Académiques de Dessin et d'Architecture, studying for three years in the studio of Alphonse Colas. His art education continued, under fellow Douai artist Émile Dupont-Zipcy, after moving to Paris in 1881.

Early work

Cross's early works, portraits and still lifes, were in the dark colors of Realism. In order to distinguish himself from the famous Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix, he changed his name in 1881, shortening and Anglicizing his birth name to "Henri Cross" – the French word croix means cross.1881 was also the year of his first exhibition at the Salon des Artistes Français. He painted many landscapes on an 1883 trip to the Alpes-Maritimes, accompanied by his family. Dr. Soins, who was also along on the trip, was the subject of a painting which Cross exhibited at Nice's Exposition Universelle later in the year. During the Mediterranean trip, Cross met Paul Signac, who became a close friend and artistic influence.
In 1884, Cross co-founded the Société des Artistes Indépendants, which consisted of artists displeased with the practices of the official Salon, and presented unjuried exhibitions without prizes.There he met and became friends with many artists involved in the Neo-Impressionist movement, including Georges Seurat, Albert Dubois-Pillet, and Charles Angrand. Despite his association with the Neo-Impressionists, Cross did not adopt their style for many years. His work continued to manifest influences such as Jules Bastien-Lepage and Édouard Manet, as well as the Impressionists. The change from his early, somber, Realist work was gradual. His color palette became lighter and he worked en plein air, he painted in the brighter colors of Impressionism. In the latter part of the 1880s, he painted pure landscapes which showed the influence of Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro. In about 1886, attempting again to differentiate himself from another French artist – this time, Henri Cros – he again changed his name, finally adopting "Henri-Edmond Cross".In 1891, Cross began painting in the Neo-Impressionist style, and exhibited his first large piece using this technique in an Indépendants show. That painting was a divisionist portrait of Madame Hector France, née Irma Clare, whom Cross had met in 1888 and would marry in 1893. Robert Rosenblum wrote that "the picture is softly charged with a granular, atmospheric glow".
Cross had wintered in the south of France from 1883 onward, until, suffering from rheumatism, he finally moved there full-time in 1891. His works were still exhibited in Paris. His first residence in southern France was in Cabasson, near Le Lavandou, then he settled a short distance away, in the small hamlet of Saint-Clair, where he spent the remainder of his life, leaving only for Italian trips in 1903 and 1908, and for his annual Indépendants exhibits in Paris. In 1892, Cross's friend Paul Signac moved to nearby Saint-Tropez. Cross and Signac frequently hosted gatherings in Cross's garden, attended by such luminaries as Matisse, André Derain, and Albert Marquet.


Cross's affinity with the Neo-Impressionist movement extended beyond the painting style, to include their political philosophies. Like Signac, Pissarro, and other Neo-Impressionists, Cross believed in anarchist principles, with hope for a utopian society. In 1896, Cross created a lithograph, L'Errant (The Wanderer). This marked the first time he had worked with a publisher, and the piece was featured anonymously in Les Temps Nouveaux, Jean Grave's anarchist journal. Cross's anarchist sentiments influenced his choice of subjects. He painted scenes illustrating a utopian world that could exist through anarchism.
The process of creating Divisionist paintings with numerous small dots of color was tedious and time-consuming. When Cross wanted to depict quick impressions, he created watercolor or colored pencil images in his sketchbooks. He wrote of a rustic French outing:
"Oh! What I saw in a split second while riding my bike tonight! I just had to jot down these fleeting things ... a rapid notation in watercolor and pencil: an informal daubing of contrasting colors, tones, and hues, all packed with information to make a lovely watercolor the next day in the quiet leisure of the studio."

Later years

 Cross's paintings of the early- to mid-1890s are characteristically Pointillist, with closely and regularly positioned tiny dots of color. Beginning around 1895, he gradually shifted his technique, instead using broad, blocky brushstrokes and leaving small areas of exposed bare canvas between the strokes. The resulting surfaces of the paintings resembled mosaics,and the works may be seen as precursors to Fauvism and Cubism. Whereas in Pointillism, minute spots of paint were intended to blend colors harmoniously, the "second generation Neo-Impressionism" strategy was to keep the colors separate, resulting in "vibrant shimmering visual effects through contrast". Cross stated that the Neo-Impressionists were "far more interested in creating harmonies of pure color, than in harmonizing the colors of a particular landscape or natural scene." Henri Matisse and other artists were very influenced by the late-career Cross, and such works were instrumental in forming the principles of Fauvism. Among the other artists influenced by Cross were André Derain, Henri Manguin, Charles Camoin, Albert Marquet, Jean Puy, and Louis Valtat.

Galerie Druet in Paris mounted Cross's first solo exhibition, in 1905, featuring thirty paintings and thirty watercolors. The show was very successful, receiving critical acclaim, and most of the works were sold. Belgian Symbolist poet Emile Verhaeren, an avid supporter of Neo-Impressionism in his country, provided the preface for the exhibition catalog, writing:
"These landscapes ... are not merely pages of sheer beauty, but motifs embodying a lyrical sense of emotion. Their rich harmonies are satisfying to the painter’s eye, and their sumptuous, luxuriant vision is a poet's delight. Yet this abundance never tips into excess. Everything is light and charming ..."

Cross began to experience troubles with his eyes in the early 1880s, and these grew more severe in the 1900s. He also increasingly suffered from arthritis. At least in part due to these health issues which plagued him for years, Cross's body of work is relatively small. However, in his last years he was productive and very creative, and his work was featured in significant solo exhibitions; he received great acclaim from critics and enjoyed commercial success.
In 1909, Cross was treated in a Paris hospital for cancer. In January 1910 he returned to Saint-Clair, where he died of the cancer just four days short of his 54th birthday, on 16 May 1910. His tomb, in the Le Lavandou cemetery, features a bronze medallion which his friend Théo van Rysselberghe had designed. In July 1911, the city of Cross's birth, Douai, mounted a retrospective exhibition of his work.

Selected exhibitions

In addition to the exhibitions mentioned above, Cross participated in many others. Octave Maus invited him to exhibit his work in several of the Annual Exhibitions of Les XX. Cross participated in the Libre Esthétique show of 1895 at Maus's invitation, and also in those of 1897, 1901, 1904, 1908, and 1909. In 1898 he participated with Paul Signac, Maximilien Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe in the first Neo-Impressionist exhibition in Germany, organized by Harry Kessler at Keller und Reiner Gallery (Berlin). In 1907, Félix Fénéon assembled a Cross retrospective in Paris at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, with Maurice Denis contributing the catalogue preface. Other venues with Cross exhibitions included Samuel Bing's L'Art Nouveau à Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel (Paris), Cassirer Gallery (Hamburg, Berlin), Toison d'or exhibition (Moscow), Bernheim-Jeune's Aquarelle et pastel, and various others, including galleries in Paris, Dresden, Weimar, and Munich.

 La fuite des nymphes, c. 1906, Musée d'Orsay
Henri-Edmond Cross - Oakenchips
Giclée print depicting two running nymphs.

 Henri-Edmond Cross, il cui vero nome era Henri Edmond Joseph Delacroix, (Douai, 20 maggio 1856 – Le Lavandou, 16 maggio 1910), è stato un pittore francese puntinista.

Pittore neo-impressionista

Henri-Edmond Delacroix, conosciuto come Cross, nacque al n°15 di Rue Jean Bellegambe a Douai.
Agli inizi fu un pittore naturalista. In seguito, progressivamente, si avvicinò a Georges Seurat e Paul Signac, anche se il suo puntinismo fu più intuitivo. Le sue opere ispirarono Matisse e i Fauves.
Dal 1900 si stabilì in Provenza, sulla costa, e fu amico del pittore belga Théo van Rysselberghe, altro puntinista, che si era trasferito anche lui a Saint-Clair, sobborgo di Le Lavandou, nel Var.
Entrambi morirono nel piccolo villaggio provenzale ed entrambi furono sepolti nel cimitero di Lavandou.


Henri-Edmond-Cross-Self-portrait 1880
Henri-Edmond Cross -

La Blouse Rouge by Henri-Edmond Cross, circa 1885. Oil on canvas, 92.7 x 65.1 cm. 
Henri-Edmond Cross (French, 1856-1910) -

Cross Mother and child
Created: 1890s

                    Madame Hector France, 1891, Musée d'Orsay 
     Henri-Edmond Cross -

 Henri-edmon cross, la capigliatura, 1892 ca.

The farm, evening, 1893, Private collection
Henri-Edmond Cross - [File:Cross la ferme, soir.JPG Wikimedia Commons]
 La Ferme, matin, 1893
Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work
La Ferme, matin, huile sur toile, Musée des beaux-arts de Nancy

Bather drying himself at St. Tropez, 1893 
Henri Edmond Cross
 L'air du soir, c.1893, Musée d'Orsay
 Henri-Edmond Cross - 9AFV5fBXEc99-g at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level

 The Excursionists, 1894
Henri Edmond Cross
 Fisherman, 1895
 Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work
 La Plage de Saint-Clair, 1896
Henri-Edmond Cross -
HENRI EDMOND CROSS (1856 - 1910), LA PLAGE DE SAINT-CLAIR, signed Henri Edmond Cross and dated 96 (lower left), oil on canvas, 54.5 by 65.4cm. Painted in 1896

Henri-Edmond Cross-L'errant-1896

 Coastal View with Cypress Trees, 1896
Henri Edmond Cross
 Landscape, c. 1896–1899
 Henri-Edmond Cross - Honolulu Museum of Art

 La barque bleue, 1899
Henri-Edmond Cross - Œuvre appartenant au Musée des beaux-arts de Dijon
La barque bleue, Henri-Edmond Cross, huile sur toile, 59,4 x 81,3 cm, Musée des beaux-arts, Dijon, France.

Les Pins by Henri Edmond Cross, oil on canvas, 60 by 81cm., c 1897-99
Henri Edmond Cross - Sotheby's

 In the Shade
Henri-Edmond Cross
Date: 1902

 La maison rose, c. 1901-1905
Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work
Ponte San Trovaso, 1902–1905
Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work

Around My House (Near a House) by Henri-Edmond Cross, 1906, oil on canvas, Pushkin Museum
Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work

 Flight of the Nymphs
 Une clairière en Provence (Étude), c. 1906 
Henri-Edmond Cross - KwGV-nWCPsL65g at Google Cultural Institute maximum zoom level
 La Chaîne des Maures, 1906–1907
 Henri-Edmond Cross - Œuvre appartenant à la Fondation Bemberg à Toulouse
 La baie à Cavalière, 1906–1907
 Henri-Edmond Cross - Œuvre appartenant au musée de l'Annonciade de Saint-Tropez
 Le Bois, 1906–1907
 Henri-Edmond Cross - Œuvre appartenant au Musée de l'Annonciade à Saint-Tropez
 Bord de mer d'Henri-Edmond Cross.
between circa 1906 and circa 1907

 The Scarab
 Dormeuse nue dans la clairière, 1907 
Henri-Edmond Cross
Antibes, Cross 1908
Henri-Edmond Cross - The Athenaeum
 Cypresses at Cagnes, 1908, Musée d'Orsay 
Henri-Edmond Cross - [File:Les cypres a Cagnes.JPG Wikimedia Commons]
Regatta in Venice, 1898/1908
Henri-Edmond Cross - LQFBHynDuDtE6Q at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum

Henri Edmond Cross - Sunset on the Lagoon, Venice - Google Art Project.jpg

An Incoming Storm, 1907-08 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910). View of the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli near Assisi. 1909. From the collection of Sergei Shchukin.
Henri-Edmond Cross - Own work
Hafenszene, by 1910
Henri-Edmond Cross - Kunstauktion Wieck
Hafenszene, Aquarell. 25.0 x 36.0 cm

 Cross - Afternoon in Pardigon (Var)
 Painting of Cross in the Orsay Museum, Paris

 Henri-Edmond Cross "Lavender"
Henri-Edmond Cross - Schoolbook of art (Shugakusha, Japan)

Portrait Of Madame Cross

Bathers I 
Henri Edmond Cross

By the Mediterranean 
Henri Edmond Cross

 At Luxembourg 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Au Theatre 
Henri Edmond Cross

Henri Edmond Cross

Bateau au large des cotes bretonnes 
Henri Edmond Cross

Bathers II 
Henri Edmond Cross

Coastal Landscape 
Henri Edmond Cross

Corner of the Garden in Monaco 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Etude De Sous-Bois Avec Femme Nue 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Femme Cousant 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Femmes liant la vigne 
Henri Edmond Cross

 Flowers In A Glass 
Henri Edmond Cross

Jeune Femme (Study For La Clairiere) 
Henri Edmond Cross

La Meditation 
Henri Edmond Cross

Portrait of Henri-Edmond Cross - Maximillien Luce

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