giovedì 2 febbraio 2017

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) Explorer

Roald Amundsen

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (Borge, 16 luglio 1872 – Mar Glaciale Artico, 18 giugno 1928) è stato un esploratore norvegese delle regioni polari. Condusse la prima spedizione capace di raggiungere il Polo sud nel 1911–1912.

Le prime esplorazioni

È nato a Borge, un piccolo villaggio 85 chilometri a sud di Oslo, a 21 anni scelse di abbandonare gli studi in medicina e di assecondare la passione per le esplorazioni. Prese parte ad alcune spedizioni nell'Artico e si applicò nel perfezionare le proprie capacità con lo sci di fondo nel clima norvegese.
Partecipò alla prima spedizione invernale nell'Antartide condotta dal belga Adrien de Gerlache, che si svolse tra il 1897 ed il 1899 a bordo della RV Belgica, come primo ufficiale, della quale assunse il comando, insieme a Frederick Cook, medico di bordo, allorché, a causa dello scorbuto, il de Gerlache e il suo comandante in seconda non erano più in grado di svolgere il loro ruolo. Durante questa spedizione la nave rimase intrappolata per quasi un anno nel mare di Bellingshausen, al largo della Penisola Antartica, il che rese l'equipaggio il primo a trascorrere un intero inverno nelle acque antartiche.
Amundsen diede poi prova del suo valore guidando la spedizione che nel 1905-1906 a bordo della nave Gjöa compì la prima traversata del passaggio a nord-ovest, dalla baia di Baffin allo stretto di Bering. La missione ottenne anche un altro importante risultato scientifico riuscendo a determinare la posizione del polo magnetico boreale.

La conquista del polo sud

Amundsen, dopo aver confermato l'esistenza del passaggio a nord-ovest, organizzò una spedizione con lo scopo di arrivare per primo al Polo nord. Quando però prima Frederick Cook e poi Robert Peary reclamano la vittoria nella competizione artica, Amundsen decide di rivolgere le sue attenzioni al Polo sud, ancora inviolato, decidendo però di non dichiarare pubblicamente le sue intenzioni e tenendo all'oscuro persino il resto dell'equipaggio che sarebbe dovuto partire con lui per la missione.
Nell'agosto del 1910 salpò a bordo della Fram dalla Norvegia per raggiungere Madeira nell'Oceano Atlantico, dove comunicò all'equipaggio il cambiamento dei piani. L'annuncio sorprese i membri della spedizione, ma nessuno decise di tirarsi indietro. Amundsen annunciò pubblicamente il cambio di programma, e la notizia fece molto scalpore sia in Norvegia che nel Regno Unito, che si apprestava a seguire la ampiamente pubblicizzata spedizione di Robert Falcon Scott, dove la notizia fu male accolta e aspramente criticata.
La Fram raggiunse la Baia delle Balene, al limite della zona ghiacciata del Mare di Ross, la Barriera di Ross, ed entro la fine di gennaio 1911 l'equipaggio terminò la costruzione della Framheim, la base della spedizione, e si procacciò una quantità sufficiente di cibo, circa 200 foche. Nelle settimane seguenti iniziò il lavoro di esplorazione e collocamento dei depositi di cibo lungo il tragitto verso il Polo. L'operazione consisteva nel caricare le slitte con viveri e strumentazioni, viaggiare per diversi chilometri lungo la Barriera di Ross, lasciando il materiale, in modo da poter partire più leggeri e avere basi di appoggio per ogni evenienza.
Dopo una falsa partenza, la spedizione partì il 19 ottobre. Dopo circa un mese di viaggio a tappe forzate, il gruppo raggiunse il margine della Barriera e iniziò ad affrontare l'attraversamento dei monti Transantartici, la catena montuosa che divide l'Antartide occidentale da quella orientale con elevazione massima oltre i 4.500 metri. Raggiunsero una cresta del ghiacciaio a 3.200 metri e si preparano per l'ultima fase del tragitto verso il Polo Sud.
Amundsen, insieme a Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel e Oscar Wisting, arrivò al polo sud il 14 dicembre 1911, 35 giorni prima della spedizione guidata da Scott. Dal momento che nessuna delle due spedizioni aveva portato con sé il troppo ingombrante telegrafo senza fili, l'unica apparecchiatura che avrebbe consentito loro di comunicare direttamente dal Polo, il successo della spedizione di Amundsen fu reso noto solo il 7 marzo 1912.
Amundsen raccontò il suo viaggio nel libro The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the Fram, 1910-1912.

L'esplorazione del polo nord

Amundsen tentò di raggiungere anche il Polo nord. Provò dapprima con gli idrovolanti, ma fallì. L'impresa ebbe successivamente successo il 12 maggio 1926, alle ore 1:30, quando Amundsen riuscì a sorvolare il Polo Artico insieme al finanziatore americano Lincoln Ellsworth e all'italiano Umberto Nobile. I tre (oltre a cinque meccanici italiani e otto marinai norvegesi) volarono sul dirigibile Norge costruito e guidato dallo stesso Umberto Nobile. Dal dirigibile furono lanciate sul Polo le bandiere italiana, norvegese e statunitense.

La morte

Morì nel 1928 in un incidente aereo avvenuto sopra i cieli del Mare Glaciale Artico, nelle acque del mare di Barents. Informato dell'incidente del dirigibile Italia, andò generosamente in soccorso dell'esploratore italiano Umberto Nobile e del suo equipaggio, nonostante avesse avuto con lui forti discussioni riguardo ai meriti della precedente avventura aeronautica con il dirigibile N1-Norge ("Norvegia"), ma l'idrovolante francese Latham 47 su cui salì scomparve in mare senza mai essere ritrovato, nonostante varie ricerche.

Nella cultura

  • Lo scrittore Roald Dahl, anch'egli di origini norvegesi, ricevette il proprio nome di battesimo proprio in omaggio all'esploratore.
  • Amundsen fu impersonato dall'attore Sean Connery nel film La tenda rossa.
  • In uno degli album del compositore minimalista italiano Stefano Ianne (Elephant, 2008) è presente un'opera sinfonica dal titolo Amundsen, dedicata al celebre esploratore e eseguita da 50 elementi orchestrali de I pomeriggi musicali di Milano e diretta dal maestro Valter Sivilotti.
  • Le vicende dell'esploratore e la sua competizione con Robert Falcon Scott per la conquista del polo sud hanno ispirato la canzone La regale sopravvivenza di Roald Amundsen e l'elegante morte bianca di R. F. Scott, scritta e interpretata dal cantautore Giuseppe Cutrò.

Ricordo

  • Il nome di Amundsen è stato conferito ad un tratto del Mare Antartico, compreso tra l'isola di Thurston e Capo Dart, ad un ghiacciaio, ad una stazione polare, ad un cratere lunare e all'asteroide 1065 Amundsenia.
  • Una nuova struttura scientifica italiana, la Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower installata a Ny-Ålesund, porta il suo nome, affiancato a quello di Umberto Nobile.

Onorificenze

Medaglia d'oro del Congresso (Stati Uniti)

— 29 maggio 1928

Pubblicazioni

  • Roald A. Amundsen, Il Passaggio Nord-Ovest. La mia spedizione polare sulla Gjøa, Milano 1908, Treves
  • Roald A. Amundsen, La conquista del Polo Sud. La spedizione norvegese della Fram verso il Polo Australe 1910-1912, Milano 1913, Treves
  • Felice Trojani, La coda di Minosse: vita di un uomo, storia di una impresa, IX edizione, Milano 2007, Ugo Mursia.
  • Felice Trojani, L'ultimo volo, IV edizione, Milano 2008, Ugo Mursia.
  • Felice Trojani, Roald Engelbert Amundsen - L'eroe dei ghiacci polari, Milano 1971, Ugo Mursia
  • Umberto Nobile, In volo alla conquista del segreto polare. Da Roma a Teller attraverso il Polo Nord, Milano 1928, Mondadori

 
Roald Amundsen nel 1908
Ludwik Szacinski - Roald Amundsen's The North West Passage: Being a Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the ship Gjøa, 1903-1907; Roald Amundsen. New York: Dutton, 1908. National Library of Canada


Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (Norwegian: [ˈɾuːɑl ˈɑmʉnsən]; 16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He led the Antarctic expedition of 1910–12 which was the first to reach the South Pole, on 14 December 1911. In 1926, he was the first expedition leader for the air expedition to the North Pole.
Amundsen is recognized as the first person, without dispute, as having reached both poles. He is also known as having the first expedition to traverse the Northwest Passage (1903–06) in the Arctic.
In June 1928, while taking part in a rescue mission for the airship Italia, the plane he was in disappeared. Amundsen was a key expedition leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, in the class of Douglas Mawson, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton.

Early life

Amundsen was born to a family of Norwegian shipowners and captains in Borge, between the towns Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg. His parents were Jens Amundsen and Hanna Sahlqvist. Roald was the fourth son in the family. His mother wanted him to avoid the family maritime trade and encouraged him to become a doctor, a promise that Amundsen kept until his mother died when he was aged 21. He promptly quit university for a life at sea.Amundsen had hidden a lifelong desire inspired by Fridtjof Nansen's crossing of Greenland in 1888 and Franklin's lost expedition. He decided on a life of intense exploration of wilderness places.

Polar treks

Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897–99)

Amundsen joined the Belgian Antarctic Expedition (1897–99) as first mate. This expedition, led by Adrien de Gerlache using the ship the RV Belgica, became the first expedition to winter in Antarctica. The Belgica, whether by mistake or design, became locked in the sea ice at 70°30′S off Alexander Island, west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The crew endured a winter for which they were poorly prepared. By Amundsen's own estimation, the doctor for the expedition, the American Frederick Cook, probably saved the crew from scurvy by hunting for animals and feeding the crew fresh meat. In cases where citrus fruits are lacking, fresh meat from animals that make their own vitamin C (which most do) contains enough of the vitamin to prevent scurvy, and even partly treat it. This was an important lesson for Amundsen's future expeditions.

Northwest Passage (1903–1906)

In 1903, Amundsen led the first expedition to successfully traverse Canada's Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He planned a small expedition of six men in a 45-ton fishing vessel, Gjøa, in order to have flexibility. His ship had relatively shallow draft. His technique was to use a small ship and hug the coast. Amundsen had the ship outfitted with a small gasoline engine. They traveled via Baffin Bay, the Parry Channel and then south through Peel Sound, James Ross Strait, Simpson Strait and Rae Strait. They spent two winters (1903–04 and 1904–05) at King William Island in the harbor of what is today Gjoa Haven, Nunavut, Canada. During this time, Amundsen and the crew learned from the local Netsilik Inuit people about Arctic survival skills, which he found invaluable in his later expedition to the South Pole. For example, he learned to use sled dogs for transportation of goods and to wear animal skins in lieu of heavy, woolen parkas, which could not deter cold when wet.
Leaving Gjoa Haven, he sailed west and passed Cambridge Bay, which had been reached from the west by Richard Collinson in 1852. Continuing to the south of Victoria Island, the ship cleared the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on 17 August 1905. It had to stop for the winter before going on to Nome on the Alaska District's Pacific coast. Five hundred miles (800 km) away, Eagle City, Alaska, had a telegraph station; Amundsen traveled there (and back) overland to wire a success message (collect) on 5 December 1905. His team reached Nome in 1906. Because the water along the route was sometimes as shallow as 3 ft (0.91 m), a larger ship could not have made the voyage.[citation needed]
At this time, Amundsen learned that Norway had formally become independent of Sweden and had a new king. The explorer sent the new King Haakon VII news that his traversing the Northwest Passage "was a great achievement for Norway". He said he hoped to do more and signed it "Your loyal subject, Roald Amundsen." The crew returned to Oslo in November 1906, after almost 3.5 years abroad. It took until 1972 to have the Gjøa returned to Norway. After a 45-day trip from San Francisco on a bulk carrier, the Gjøa was placed in her current location on land, outside the Fram Museum in Oslo.

South Pole Expedition (1910–12)

Amundsen next planned to take an expedition to the North Pole and explore the Arctic Basin. Finding it difficult to raise funds, when he heard in 1909 that the Americans Frederick Cook and Robert Peary had claimed to reach the North Pole as a result of two different expeditions, he decided to reroute to Antarctica. He was not clear about his intentions, and the Englishman Robert F. Scott and the Norwegian supporters felt misled. Scott was planning his own expedition to the South Pole that year. Using the ship Fram ("Forward"), earlier used by Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen left Oslo for the south on 3 June 1910. At Madeira, Amundsen alerted his men that they would be heading to Antarctica, and sent a telegram to Scott, notifying him simply: "BEG TO INFORM YOU FRAM PROCEEDING ANTARCTIC--AMUNDSEN."
Nearly six months later, the expedition arrived at the eastern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf (then known as "the Great Ice Barrier"), at a large inlet called the Bay of Whales, on 14 January 1911. Amundsen established his base camp there, calling it Framheim. Amundsen eschewed the heavy wool clothing worn on earlier Antarctic attempts in favour of adopting Inuit-style furred skins.
Using skis and dog sleds for transportation, Amundsen and his men created supply depots at 80°, 81° and 82° South on the Barrier, along a line directly south to the Pole. Amundsen also planned to kill some of his dogs on the way and use them as a source for fresh meat. A small group, including Hjalmar Johansen, Kristian Prestrud and Jørgen Stubberud, set out on 8 September 1911, but had to abandon their trek due to extreme temperatures. The painful retreat caused a quarrel within the group, and Amundsen sent Johansen and the other two men to explore King Edward VII Land.
A second attempt, with a team made up of Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, and Amundsen, departed base camp on 19 October 1911. They took four sledges and 52 dogs. Using a route along the previously unknown Axel Heiberg Glacier, they arrived at the edge of the Polar Plateau on 21 November after a four-day climb. On 14 December 1911, the team of five, with 16 dogs, arrived at the Pole (90° 0′ S).[n 1] They arrived 33–34 days before Scott’s group. Amundsen named their South Pole camp Polheim, meaning "Home on the Pole." Amundsen renamed the Antarctic Plateau as King Haakon VII’s Plateau. They left a small tent and letter stating their accomplishment, in case they did not return safely to Framheim.
The team returned to Framheim on 25 January 1912, with 11 surviving dogs. They made their way off the continent and to Hobart, Australia, where Amundsen publicly announced his success on 7 March 1912. He telegraphed news to backers.
Amundsen's expedition benefited from his careful preparation, good equipment, appropriate clothing, a simple primary task, an understanding of dogs and their handling, and the effective use of skis. In contrast to the misfortunes of Scott’s team, Amundsen’s trek proved relatively smooth and uneventful.
In Amundsen's own words:
I may say that this is the greatest factor—the way in which the expedition is equipped—the way in which every difficulty is foreseen, and precautions taken for meeting or avoiding it. Victory awaits him who has everything in order—luck, people call it. Defeat is certain for him who has neglected to take the necessary precautions in time; this is called bad luck.
— from The South Pole, by Roald Amundsen
Amundsen wrote about the expedition in The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the 'Fram,' 1910–12 (1912).

Northeast Passage (1918–20)

In 1918, an expedition Amundsen began with a new ship, Maud, lasted until 1925. Maud sailed west to east through the Northeast Passage, now called the Northern Route (1918–20).
With him on this expedition were Oscar Wisting and Helmer Hanssen, both of whom had been part of the team to reach the South Pole. In addition, Henrik Lindstrøm was included as a cook. He suffered a stroke and was so physically reduced that he could not participate.
The goal of the expedition was to explore the unknown areas of the Arctic Ocean, strongly inspired by Fridtjof Nansen's earlier expedition with Fram. The plan was to sail along the coast of Siberia and go into the ice farther to the north and east than Nansen had. In contrast to Amundsen's earlier expeditions, this was expected to yield more material for academic research, and he carried the geophysicist Harald Sverdrup on board.
The voyage was to the northeasterly direction over the Kara Sea. Amundsen planned to freeze the Maud into the polar ice cap and drift towards the North Pole (as Nansen had done with the Fram), and he did so off Cape Chelyuskin. But, the ice became so thick that the ship was unable to break free, although it was designed for such a journey in heavy ice. In September 1919, the crew got the ship loose from the ice, but it froze again after eleven days somewhere between the New Siberian Islands and Wrangel Island.
During this time, Amundsen participated little in the work outdoors, such as sleigh rides and hunting, because he had suffered numerous injuries. He had a broken arm and had been attacked by polar bears. Hanssen and Wisting, along with two other men, embarked on an expedition by dog sled to Nome, Alaska, more than 1,000 kilometres away. But they found that the ice was not frozen solid in the Bering Strait, and it could not be crossed. They sent a telegram from Anadyr to signal their location.
After two winters frozen in the ice, without having achieved the goal of drifting over the North Pole, Amundsen decided to go to Nome to repair the ship and buy provisions. Several of the crew ashore there, including Hanssen, did not return on time to the ship. Amundsen considered Hanssen to be in breach of contract, and dismissed him from the crew.
During the third winter, Maud was frozen in the western Bering Strait. She finally became free and the expedition sailed south, reaching Seattle, Washington, in the US Pacific Northwest in 1921 for repairs. Amundsen returned to Norway, needing to put his finances in order. He took with him two young indigenous girls, the adopted four-year-old Kakonita and her companion Camilla. When Amundsen went bankrupt two years later, however, he sent the girls to be cared for by Camilla's father, who lived in eastern Russia.
In June 1922, Amundsen returned to Maud, which had been sailed to Nome. He decided to shift from the planned naval expedition to aerial ones, and arranged to charter a plane. He divided the expedition team in two: one part was to survive the winter and prepare for an attempt to fly over the pole. This part was led by Amundsen. The second team on Maud, under the command of Wisting, was to resume the original plan to drift over the North Pole in the ice. The ship drifted in the ice for three years east of the New Siberian Islands, never reaching the North Pole. It was finally seized by Amundsen's creditors as collateral for his mounting debt.
The attempt to fly over the Pole failed, too. Amundsen and Oskar Omdal, of the Royal Norwegian Navy, tried to fly from Wainwright, Alaska, to Spitsbergen across the North Pole. When their aircraft was damaged, they abandoned the journey. To raise additional funds, Amundsen traveled around the United States in 1924 on a lecture tour.
Although he was unable to reach the North Pole, the scientific results of the expedition, mainly the work of Sverdrup, have proven to be of considerable value. Many of these carefully collected scientific data were lost during the ill-fated journey of Peter Tessem and Paul Knutsen, two crew members sent on a mission by Amundsen. The scientific materials were later retrieved by Russian scientist Nikolay Urvantsev from where they had been abandoned on the shores of the Kara Sea.

Reaching the North Pole

In 1925, accompanied by Lincoln Ellsworth, pilot Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, and three other team members, Amundsen took two Dornier Do J flying boats, the N-24 and N-25, to 87° 44′ north. It was the northernmost latitude reached by plane up to that time. The aircraft landed a few miles apart without radio contact, yet the crews managed to reunite. The N-24 was damaged. Amundsen and his crew worked for more than three weeks to clean up an airstrip to take off from ice. They shovelled 600 tons of ice while consuming only one pound (400 g) of daily food rations. In the end, six crew members were packed into the N-25. In a remarkable feat, Riiser-Larsen took off, and they barely became airborne over the cracking ice. They returned triumphant when everyone thought they had been lost forever.
In 1926, Amundsen and 15 other men (including Ellsworth, Riiser-Larsen, Oscar Wisting, and the Italian air crew led by aeronautical engineer Umberto Nobile) made the first crossing of the Arctic in the airship Norge, designed by Nobile. They left Spitzbergen on 11 May 1926, and they landed in Alaska two days later. The three previous claims to have arrived at the North Pole: Frederick Cook in 1908; Robert Peary in 1909; and Richard E. Byrd in 1926 (just a few days before the Norge) are all disputed, as being either of dubious accuracy or outright fraud. If their claims are false, the crew of the Norge would be the first verified explorers to have reached the North Pole. If the Norge expedition was the first to the North Pole, Amundsen and Oscar Wisting were the first men to reach each geographical pole, by ground or by air.

Disappearance and death

Amundsen disappeared with five crew on 18 June 1928 while flying on a rescue mission in the Arctic. His team included Norwegian pilot Leif Dietrichson, French pilot René Guilbaud, and three more Frenchmen. They were seeking missing members of Nobile's crew, whose new airship Italia had crashed while returning from the North Pole. Afterward, a wing-float and bottom gasoline tank from Amundsen's French Latham 47 flying boat, which had been adapted as a replacement wing-float, were found near the Tromsø coast. It is believed that the plane crashed in fog in the Barents Sea, and that Amundsen and his crew were killed in the crash, or died shortly afterward. The search for Amundsen and team was called off in September 1928 by the Norwegian Government and the bodies were never found.
In 2004 and in late August 2009, the Royal Norwegian Navy used the unmanned submarine Hugin 1000 to search for the wreckage of Amundsen's plane. The searches focused on a 40-square-mile (100 km2) area of the sea floor, and were documented by the German production company ContextTV. They found nothing from the Amundsen flight.

Legacy

A number of places have been named after Amundsen:
  • The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is named jointly with his rival
  • Amundsen Sea, off the coast of Antarctica
  • Amundsen Glacier, in Antarctica
  • Amundsen Bay, in Antarctica
  • Mount Amundsen, in Antarctica
  • Amundsen Gulf, in the Arctic Ocean, off the coast of the Northwest Territories in Canada (separating Banks Island and the western parts of Victoria Island from the mainland)
  • A large crater near the Moon's south pole is named Amundsen
  • Amundsen Basin, abyssal plain in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Amundsen Plain, abyssal plain in the Southern Ocean.
Several ships are named after him:
  • The Canadian Coast Guard named an icebreaker CCGS Amundsen, whose mission is to perform scientific research in the waters of the Arctic
  • The Royal Norwegian Navy is building a class of Aegis frigates, the second of which is the HNoMS Roald Amundsen (completed 2006)
  • The German brig Roald Amundsen
Other tributes include:
  • Writer Roald Dahl was named after Amundsen
  • Nobel Laureate, Chemist and Poet Roald Hoffmann was named after Amundsen
  • The Amundsen Trail and Amundsen Circle, Oakwood, Staten Island, New York
  • Amundsen High School, Chicago, Illinois
  • A Pullman Company railroad car was named after him.
  • In 1925 he was awarded the Hans Egede Medal by the Royal Danish Geographical Society.

European-Inuit descendant claims

Some Inuit people in Gjøa Haven with European ancestry have claimed to be descendants of Amundsen (or one of his six crew, whose names have not remained as well known), from the period of their extended winter stay on King Williams Island from 1903 to 1905. Accounts by members of the expedition told of their relations with Inuit women, and historians have speculated that Amundsen might also have taken a partner, lthough he wrote a warning against this. Specifically, half brothers Bob Konona and Paul Ikuallaq say that their father Luke Ikuallaq (b. 1904) told them on his deathbed that he was the son of Amundsen. Konona said that their father Ikuallaq was left out on the ice to die after his birth, as his European ancestry made him illegitimate to the Inuit, threatening their community. His Inuit grandparents saved him. In 2012, Y-DNA analysis, with the families' permission, showed that Ikuallaq (and his sons) was not a match to the direct male line of Amundsen. Not all descendants claiming European ancestry have been tested for a match to Amundsen, nor has there been a comparison of Ikuallaq's DNA to that of other European members of Amundsen's crew.

Works by Amundsen

  • Nordvestpassagen, 2-vols, 1907. Translated as The North-West Passage: Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the ship "Gjøa" 1903–1907, 1908.
  • Sydpolen, 2-vols, 1912. Translated as The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the "Fram," 1910–1912, translated by A. G. Chater, 1912.
  • Nordostpassagen. Maudfærden langs Asiens kyst 1918–1920. H. U. Sverdrups ophold blandt tsjuktsjerne. Godfred Hansens depotekspedition 1919–1920. Gyldendal, Kristiania 1921.
  • Gjennem luften til 88° Nord (by Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth and other members of the expedition, 1925). Translated as Our Polar Flight: The Amundsen-Ellsworth Polar Flight, 1925; also as My Polar Flight, 1925.
  • Den første flukt over polhavet, with Lincoln Ellsworth and others, 1926. Translated as The First Flight Across the Polar Sea, 1927; also as The First Crossing of the Polar Sea, 1927.
  • Mitt liv som polarforsker, 1927. Translated as My Life as an Explorer, 1927.

As a boy, 1875
National Library of Norway
Roald Amundsen as a young boy from 1875.

1899
Daniel Georg Nyblin originally from Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway
Руаль Амундсен

1909
Anders Beer Wilse Description: Frontispiece portrait of Roald Amundsen, 1872-1928. In: "The South Pole", Volume II, Library Call Number M82.1/99 A529s., libr0351, Treasures of the NOAA Library Collection, by Mr. Steve Nicklas, NOS, NGS
Roald Amundsen ved Svartskog, Bunnefjorden, 7. mars 1909

 North Pole expedition, 1920
Lomen Bros
"Capt. Roald Amundsen at wheel leaving home for North Pole", photographic print

 Roald Amundsen in fur
Possibly 1912 or earlier  

RV Belgica frozen in the ice, 1898
Frederick Cook
Die Belgica bei der Antarktisexpedition 1897-1899

Roald Amundsen and his crew looking at the Norwegian flag at the South Pole, 1911
Olav Bjaaland - Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation: De Aarde en haar Volken, Jaargang 1913. HAARLEM, H. D. TJEENK WILLINK & ZOON.
Aan de Zuidpool

 Sled dog Obersten, at museum
Martinevans123 - Own work
Amudsen's sled dog Obersten at the Holmenkollen Ski Museum

The polarship Maud in June 1918
Anders Beer Wilse (1865 - 1949) - Galleri NOR Tilvekstnummer: NF.W 19772 Internnr: NBR9404:14440
Roald Amundsen's ship Maud, built in 1917

 Tittel / Title: Roald Amundsen ser på Martin Rønne som syr på maskin Motiv / Motif: Over dem var det trukket solseil som sørget for at alle hundene lå i skyggen på reisen til Antarktis. Dato / Date: 1910 Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown Sted / Place: Norge - Antarktis Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway 

 Beskrivelse / Description: Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, Roald Amundsen, Olav Bjaaland og Helmer Hanssen står på "Fram"s dekk. Dato / Date: 7. mars 1912 Sted / Place: Australia, Tasmania, Hobart Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown

Tittel / Title: Teltleir med sleder hunder og annet utstyr Motiv / Motif: I bakgrunnen ved siden av teltet står det et depot (merket med flagg). Bildet er antakelig fra første depottur til 80 grader sørlige bredde. I depotene hadde Amundsen tilsammen lagt ut omtrent 3 tonn med proviant, utstyr og brensel. Dato / Date: 1911 Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown Sted / Place: Antarktis Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway  

 Roald Amundsen and Engelbret Knudsen
Frederick Cook - Flickr: Roald Amundsen og Engelbret Knudsen
Tittel / Title: Roald Amundsen og Engelbret Knudsen Motiv / Motif: Amundsen og Knudsen fjerner det øverste laget av isen for å forberede saging av det harde, nederste laget. Planen var å lage en kanal gjennom isen for å frigjøre "Belgica" før isen tvang mannskapet til enda en overvintring. Dato / Date: januar 1899 Fotograf / Photographer: Frederick A. Cook (1865-1940) Sted / Place: Antarktis 
 Christmas celebration in Gjoa Haven, 1903Godfred Hansen (1876-1937). - Flickr: Julefeiring i Gjøahavn 1903. Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway. Publisert på s. 95 i Amundsens "Nordvestpassagen"
 Aan de Zuidpoolsconosciuto - Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation: De Aarde en haar Volken, Jaargang 1913. HAARLEM, H. D. TJEENK WILLINK & ZOON.
 Beskrivelse / Description: Bakerst fra venstre står altmuligmann Sverre Hassel, islos Ludvig Hansen, F. Steller, altmuligmann Olav Bjaaland, tredje maskinist Halvardus Kristensen, seilmaker Martin Rønne, islos Andreas Beck, altmuligmann Oscar Wisting, H. Halvorsen, maskinist Knut Sundbeck, og sittende: altmuligmann Hjalmar Johansen, Kristian Prestrud, ekspedisjonsleder Roald Amundsen, nestkommanderende og kaptein Thorvald Nilsen, andre styrmann Hjalmar Gjertsen, altmuligmann Helmer Hanssen, kokk Adolf Lindstrøm, snekker Jørgen Stubberud, kokk Karenius Olsen og A. Olsen. Dato / Date: 7. mars 1912 Sted / Place: Australia, Tasmania, Hobart Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown Digital kopi av original / Digital copy of original: glasspositiv, kolorert, avfotografering av rastrert repro Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway 
 Tittel / Title: I Framheims stue Motiv / Motif: Negativ glassplate. Rundt bordet sitter Adolf Lindstrøm, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, Helmer Hanssen, Roald Amundsen, Jørgen Stubberud og Kristian Prestrud. Amundsen lener albuen på et fotoapparat. Dato / Date: 1911/1912 Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown Sted / Place: Antarktis, Hvalbukta, Framheim Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway 
 Tittel / Title: I Framheims stue sys det på diverse utstyr Motiv / Motif: Negativ glassplate. Rundt bordet sitter Olav Bjaaland, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, Helmer Hanssen, Roald Amundsen, Hjalmar Johansen, Kristian Prestrud, og Jørgen Stubberud. Alle mann måtte gjøre en del slikt arbeid. Bl.a. ble skinndraktene som var laget etter eskimoisk mønster sydd om etter mål, nesebeskyttere til solbrillene ble laget, trekkseler til hundene ble modifisert. Dato / Date: 1911 Fotograf / Photographer: ukjent / unknown Sted / Place: Antarktis, Hvalbukta, Framheim Eier / Owner Institution: Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway 
 Beskrivelse: "Roald Amundsen starter turen mot Sydpolen 19. oktober 1911. Det ble ikke tatt noe fotografi ved denne anledning, bildet er tatt ut av en film med levende bilder." Fotograf: Amundsenekspedisjonen Arkivreferanse: Riksarkivet, UD Avdeling for presse, kultur og informasjon, Uc1, Roald Amundsen Starting up Description: "Roald Amundsen starting his trip to the South Pole, October 19, 1911. There was no photograph taken at this occation, this photo is taken from a film with moving images." Photo: The Amudsen expeditionRiksarkivet (National Archives of Norway) from Oslo, Norway - Oppstart
 Descrizione originale: “Members of the Terra Nova expedition at the South Pole: Robert F. Scott, Lawrence Oates, Henry R. Bowers, Edward A. Wilson, and Edgar Evans.Published in: The Great White South... / by Herbert G. Ponting, F.R.G.S. New York : Robert M. McBride & Co., 1922. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-8744Henry Bowers (1883 - 1912)
 Dirigible launch tower used by Roald Amundsen and Umberto Nobile in their 1926 polar expedition. Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard.
Gjøa ship
 The Fram under sail
Anders Beer Wilse - Fram
Beskrivelse: "Fram under fulle seil, sørover i 1910." Fotograf: A. B. Wilse Arkivreferanse: Riksarkivet, UD Avdeling for presse, kultur og informasjon, Uc1, Roald Amundsen Fram Description: "Full sail ahead for Fram, going south, 1910". Photo: A. B. Wilse

The Fram under sail
sconosciuto , Archival Photograph by Mr. Steve Nicklas, NOS, NGS - photolib.noaa.gov From Amundsen, Roald: The South Pole, Vol. I, first published by John Murray, London 1912. Photo facing page 170
A photograph Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition ship Fram, under sail in Antarctic waters

 Monument Amundsen
Superchilum - Opera propria
Monumento alla spedizione di Amundsen del 1925, Ny-Ålesund

 Roald Amundsen in Svalbard 1925
Preus Museum c/o Paul Berge? (presumed.) - Preus Museum on Flickr
Roald Amundsen, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, 1925.

 Saint Stanislav Star
Bjørn Christian Tørrissen - Photographed by uploader at the Fram Museum in Oslo, Norway
The Cross of The Order of Saint Stanislaw, First Class, as issued by the Russian Imperial House of Romanov to Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, in recognition of him leading the first expedition ever succeeding in reaching the South Pole.

Russian collection coin.

 Title page of Amundsen's account.

Amundsen monument in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway
Vfp15 at English Wikipedia - Self-photographed
Amundsen monument, with Ny Alesund's North Pole Hotel in the background.

 Руаль Амундсен в своём кабинете в усадье "Ураниенборг"
Anders Beer Wilse - Nasjonalbiblioteket / National Library of Norway

Explorers - Amundsen - YouTube

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeEm5256pWQ
18 mar 2012 - Caricato da David Cobham
Explorers - Amundsen ... This is the BBC Series: Explorers - Amundsen ... Roald Amundsen through ...


Nessun commento:

Posta un commento