Doublehead (1744-1807) o Incalatanga (Tal-tsu'tsa a Cherokee), è stato uno dei guerrieri più temuti della Cherokee durante le guerre Cherokee-americani. Nel 1788, suo fratello, Vecchio Nappa, che era il capo del popolo Cherokee, fu ucciso durante una tregua (pace negoziazione) dai ranger di frontiera. Nel 1791 Doublehead era tra i delegati Cherokee che visitarono il presidente degli Stati Uniti George Washington a Philadelphia. Dopo il trattato di pace al Tellico Blockhouse nel 1794, Doublehead fu eletto come uno dei leader del Chickamauga Cherokee (o "Lower Cherokee"). Alla morte di suo nipote, principale capo John Watts, nel 1802, Doublehead è stato scelto come capo del Chickamauga (assumendo il titolo Chuqualataque).
Si pensa che il padre di Doublehead fu Great Eagle (o Willenewa), nipote del capo Old Hop e cugino di Capo Attakullakulla (o Little Carpenter). Uno dei suoi fratelli era era Old Tassel, ucciso mentre si recava ad un incontro con Franklin per concordare un trattato.. Due dei suoi parenti, Tahlonteeskee e John Jolly, erano anche leader tra il Chickamauga ed entrambi in seguito divennero capi della nazione cherokee. ultima moglie di Doublehead era Nancy Drumgoole. Il loro figlio più giovane, Bird Doublehead, aveva solo dodici anni, al momento dell'assassinio di Doublehead.
Viveva nella Città di Overhill sul fiume Tennessee Little, ha preso solo una parte sporadici nelle campagne di trascinamento Canoa, fino a quando l'omicidio di suo fratello, e un altro capo pacifista, Abraham di Chilhowee, sotto una bandiera bianca durante un'ambasciata allo Stato di Franklin nel 1788. Da allora in poi, è diventato uno dei combattenti più feroci -e leader capaci -Di Cherokee in guerra., ucciso mentre il trattamento con lo Stato perduta di Franklin. Due dei suoi parenti, Tahlonteeskee e John Jolly, erano anche leader tra il Chickamauga ed entrambi in seguito divennero principali capi della nazione cherokee. ultima moglie di Doublehead era Nancy Drumgoole. Il loro figlio più giovane, Uccello Doublehead, aveva solo dodici anni, al momento dell'assassinio di Doublehead.
Vivere in Città Overhill sul fiume Tennessee Little, ha preso solo sporadicamente parte alle campagne di Dragging Canoe, fino a quando l'omicidio di suo fratello, e un altro capo pacifista, Abraham di Chilhowee, sotto una bandiera bianca durante una mssone di pace con Stato di Franklin nel 1788. Da allora in poi, è diventato uno dei combattenti più feroci -e leader capace -Di Cherokee in guerra.
Esordi come leader di guerraIl primo atto della sua guerra fu quello di condurre un gruppo di guerrieri, in un assalto a Fort White in East Tennessee. Da allora in poi, lui ei suoi guerrieri gestiti un po 'in modo indipendente, anche se a volte unendosi con altri, Trascinando campagne di Canoa,si insediò a Coldwater sul fiume Tennessee in quello che oggi è lo stato dell'Alabama. La posizione a quel tempo era all'interno del territorio rivendicato dal Chickasaw, ma Doublehead risolto il problema sposando due figlie di George Colbert, il capo della città Chickasaw ai piedi delle Shoals. la band di Doublehead incluse non solo Cherokee, ma Muskogee, Shawnee, e rinnegati Chickasaw (il cui Consiglio e capi erano fermamente contrari alle guerre).
Attività negli anni successivi delle guerre
partire dal 1791, ha iniziato ad operare a stretto contatto con il gruppo del suo pronipote, Bob Benge, che sarebbe diventato uno dei
guerrieri più temuti alla frontiera, e il fratello di Benge, The Tail,. Dopo la morte di Dragging Canoe nel 1792, entra a far parte di un
triumvirato di capi tra i Chickamauga, insieme al compagno di sangue e nipote, John Watts, che fu riconosciuto come il loro capo .
mese di settembre 1792, Watts ha orchestrato una grande campagna nella
regione Cumberland delle forze Cherokee e Muskogee che
comprendeva un contingente di cavalleria. Doveva
essere un attacco a tre punte, in cui Tahlonteeskee (o Talotiskee) del
Muskogee (che era o un capo Creek o un parente di Doublehead con
questo nome) portò una forza sulla strada
del Kentucky per tendere un'imboscata; Middle Striker si portò un altro contingente per fare lo stesso sulla strada Walton; mentre
Watts porò l'esercito principale che era composta da 280
Cherokee, Shawnee, e Muskogee guerrieri e cavalieri, contro un
insediamento sul fiume Cumberland conosciuta come stazione di Buchanan
il 30 settembre 1792. Tra gli aggressori c'erano Shawnee Warrior (anche conosciuto
come Chiksika o Cheeseekau), Tahlonteeskee, e trascinare il fratello di Dragging Canoe, Little Owl, ognuno dei quali è morto negli scontri. AnchePumpkin Boy fu ucciso durante l'attacco un fratello minore del Doublehead.
Ma qesto non impedi' di cotinuare la guerra contro soldati e coloni, tanto che si racconta che Doublehead distrusse il cranio di un ragazzo con un'ascia in un piccolo insediamento chiamato stazione di Cavett . .e fatto trucidare dai suoi guerrieri tutti gli abitanti che si erano arresi.
A causa dell'incidente di cui sopra, Vann chiama Doublehead "Babykiller" per il resto della sua vita. Questo incidente ha anche iniziato una lunga faida che ha definito la politica del 19 ° secolo, delle nazioni cherokee.
Nel mese di agosto 1807 da alcuni avversari che lo accusavano di essere un traditore per i Cherokee, il Capo Doublehead fu ucciso presso il sito del Hawassee Garrison. Il Doublehead gravemente ferito cercò di sicurezza nella soffitta della casa del maestro Jonathan Blacke, dove gli assassini finito il lavoro con coltelli e tomahawk.
Una versione romanzata della sua esecuzione è nel romanzo di Dee Brown "Blood Creek di Maria."
Doublehead (1744–1807) or Incalatanga (Tal-tsu'tsa in Cherokee), was one of the most feared warriors of the Cherokee during the Cherokee–American wars. In 1788, his brother, Old Tassel, was chief of the Cherokee people, but was killed under a truce (negotiating peace) by frontier rangers. In 1791 Doublehead was among a delegation of Cherokees who visited U.S. President George Washington in Philadelphia. After the peace treaty at the Tellico Blockhouse in 1794, Doublehead served as one of the leaders of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee"). Upon the death of his nephew, Principal Chief John Watts, in 1802, Doublehead was chosen as leader of the Chickamauga (taking on the title Chuqualataque).
Personal lifeIt is thought that Doublehead's father was Great Eagle (or Willenewa), a nephew of Chief Old Hop and a cousin of Chief Attakullakulla (or Little Carpenter). One of his brothers was Old Tassel, killed while treating with the lost State of Franklin. Two of his relatives, Tahlonteeskee and John Jolly, were also leaders among the Chickamauga and both later became Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation. Doublehead's last wife was Nancy Drumgoole. Their youngest son, Bird Doublehead, was only twelve years old at the time of Doublehead's assassination.
Living in the Overhill Towns on the Little Tennessee River, he took only sporadic part in the campaigns of Dragging Canoe, until the murder of his brother, and another pacifist chief, Abraham of Chilhowee, under a flag of truce during an embassy to the State of Franklin in 1788. Thereafter, he became one of the most vicious fighters —and able leaders —of the Cherokee at war.
Beginnings as a war leaderHis first act in his new crusade was to lead a party of warriors in concert with those of Dragging Canoe in an assault on White's Fort in East Tennessee that same year. Thereafter, he and his warriors operated somewhat independently, though occasionally joining Dragging Canoe's campaigns, operating from his new settlement of Coldwater at the head of the Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River in what is now the state of Alabama. The location at the time was within the territory claimed by the Chickasaw, but Doublehead solved that problem by marrying two daughters to George Colbert, the chief of the Chickasaw town at the foot of the Shoals. Doublehead's band included not only Cherokee, but Muskogee, Shawnee, and renegade Chickasaw (whose council and chiefs were adamantly opposed to the wars).
Activities in later years of the warsBeginning in 1791, he began operating closely with the parties of his great-nephew, Bob Benge, who was to become one of the most feared warriors on the frontier, and Benge's brother, The Tail, who were then based in Willstown. Following the death of Dragging Canoe in 1792, he became part of a triumvirate of leaders among the Chickamauga, along with Bloody Fellow and his nephew, John Watts, who was recognized as the chief of them.
In September 1792, Watts orchestrated a large campaign into the Cumberland region of combined Cherokee and Muskogee forces which included a contingent of cavalry. It was to be a three-pronged attack in which Tahlonteeskee (or Talotiskee) of the Muskogee (who was either a Creek chief or a relative of Doublehead by that name) led a force to ambush the Kentucky road; Middle Striker led another to do the same on the Walton road; while Watts himself led the main army which was made up of 280 Cherokee, Shawnee, and Muskogee warriors and cavalry, against a settlement on the Cumberland River known as Buchanan's Station on Sept. 30, 1792. Among the attackers were the Shawnee Warrior (also known as Chiksika, or Cheeseekau), Tahlonteeskee, and Dragging Canoe's brother, Little Owl, all of whom died in the encounter. Also killed in the attack was Pumpkin Boy, a younger brother of Doublehead.
One an earlier occasion, Doublehead, Pumpkin Boy, and their nephew Bob Benge, had led a raid into southwestern Kentucky during which their warriors, in an act initiated by Doublehead, cannibalized the enemies they had just killed. Their act was in imitation of the Iroquois, particularly the Mohawk, who did so to intimidate their enemies (especially during the Beaver Wars). Though every warrior present partook, Benge never operated with Doublehead afterward, sickened at his actions and at his own, nor did the later leader, The Ridge, who also took part.
Beginning of his troubles with James VannIn 1793, a delegation of Shawnee stopped in Ustanali, the principal city of the Cherokee, on their way to call on the Muskogee and Choctaw to punish the Chickasaw for joining St. Clair's army in the north. Watts sent envoys to Knoxville, then the capital of the Southwest Territory, to meet with Governor William Blount to discuss terms for peace. This party, which included Bob McLemore, Tahlonteeskee, Captain Charley of Running Water, and Doublehead, along with the white delegation, was attacked by militia during a stop at the Overhill town of Coyatee. Hanging Maw (one of two men claiming the title of "First Beloved Man") was wounded, and several others, including his wife, daughter, and one of the white delegates, were killed. The Cherokee (and, amazingly, Watts' hostile Chickamauga warriors) agreed to await the outcome of the subsequent trial, which proved to be a farce. This was in large part because the man responsible was a close friend of John Sevier.
Watts responded by invading the Holston area with one of the largest Indian forces ever seen in the region —over one thousand Cherokee, Muskogee, and Shawnee —intending to attack Knoxville itself. On the way, the Cherokee leaders were discussing among themselves whether to kill all the inhabitants of Knoxville, or just the men, James Vann advocating the latter while Doublehead argued for the former. Further on the way, they encountered a small settlement called Cavett's Station. After they had surrounded the place, Benge negotiated with the inhabitants, agreeing that if they surrendered, their lives would be spared. However, after the settlers had walked out, Doublehead's group and his Muskogee allies attacked and began killing them over the pleas of Benge and the others. Vann managed to grab one small boy and pull him onto his saddle, only to have Doublehead smash the boy's skull with an axe. Watts intervened in time to save another young boy, handing him to Vann, who put the boy behind him on his horse and later handed him over to three of the Muskogee for safe-keeping. Unfortunately, one of the Muskogee chiefs killed the boy and scalped him a few days later.
Because of the above incident, Vann called Doublehead "Babykiller" for the remainder of his life. This incident also began a lengthy feud which defined the politics of the early 19th-century Cherokee Nation.
After the warsDoublehead, as well as being one of the leaders of the Lower Towns, was elected first Speaker of the Cherokee National Council, when the Cherokee formed its first nascent national government, in 1794. He became one of the foremost advocates of acculturation and one of the richest men in The Cherokee Nation —the Lower Towns then being the wealthiest section of the entire country. He was also a chief advocate of land sales, along with several older chiefs in the Lower Towns, whose number included Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle at Home. This only increased the enmity between him and his chief rival, James Vann, who was the richest man in "The Nation."
DeathIn August 1807, because of his ongoing machinations with U.S. Indian Affairs Commissioner Return J. Meigs, Jr. regarding under-the-table land deals, as well as personal animosity going back nearly two decades, several of the younger leaders of the Nation, led by James Vann, conspired to assassinate Doublehead. Meanwhile, Doublehead lost part of his thumb in a scuffle with a Cherokee named Bone Polisher. Vann, because of his personal animosity toward Doublehead going back nearly two decades, had initially planned to lead the assault, but had become too drunk to take part. The Ridge (later known as Major Ridge) and Alexander Sanders, shot the injured chief in McIntosh's Tavern at the Hiwassee Garrison near the Cherokee Agency (now Calhoun, Tennessee). The badly wounded Doublehead sought safety in the attic of schoolmaster Jonathan Blacke's house, where the assassins finished the job with knives and tomahawks. Thomas Clark was a close friend of the Cherokee Indian Chief Doublehead, and when a treaty was signed on 25 October 1805 for the location of a Fort opposite and below the mouth of the Hawassee River and on the North Bank of the Tennessee River. The Hiwassee Garrison, 1805 to 1817, As part of this treaty, a secret article was applicable to a small tract of land at and below the mouth of the Clinch River, to the one mile square at the foot of the Cumberland Mountains, and to the one square mile on the north bank of the Tennessee River where Cherokee Talootiske lived. The first mentioned tract was also intended for the benefit of Chief Doublehead, who leased it on 19 February 1806 to Thomas Clark for 20 years. When Chief Doublehead was killed at the site of the Hawassee Garrison in August 1807 by rivals who accused him of being a traitor to the Cherokees, the State of Tennessee assumed to grant the tract to Thomas Clark on 10 December 1820. At the time of the murder of Chief Doublehead, Thomas Clark, John D. Chisholm, and Major Return J. Meigs had been appointed the executors of the estate by Chief Doublehead, and he wished that his estate be disposed of in the manner of white people and his wishes were read and approved by the Cherokee Council. Chief Doublehead's son Birdsong Doublehead, who was twelve years old and living in the Clarks' home at the time of his father’s murder, stayed there until his father’s estate could be settle, and then Clark took him down to Mussel Shoals Alabama to be with his mother Nancy Drumgoole, last wife of Chief Doublehead.
A historical irony deserves mention here. Walker's Ferry on the Hiwasssee River was owned by John Walker, Jr., a mixed blood who was one of Vann's associates. In July 1834, because of his advocacy of removal in the years leading up to the Treaty of New Echota, Walker was assassinated on the road home from Red Clay, TN after a meeting of the Cherokee National Council. His killers were James Foreman and his half brother Anderson Springston. In June 1839, after the Cherokee Removal to Indian Territory, Major Ridge, his son John Ridge, and nephew Elias Boudinot (Cherokee) were accused of the same crime as that of Doublehead and themselves became the targets of assassins. Among the killers of Major Ridge were James Foreman, Anderson Springston, Isaac Springston, and Bird Doublehead. They were all maternal half-brothers whose mother was Nancy Drumgoole, last wife of Doublehead. Their son, Bird Doublehead, was twelve years old and residing at the home of Thomas Clark when his father, Doublehead, was killed by the Cherokee assassins, Alexander Sanders and Major Ridge.
A fictional version of his execution is in Dee Brown's novel "Creek Mary's Blood."